Young Science

Editorial 2016-1


Liebe Leserin, lieber Leser!

Mit dem Frühling erwacht auch das Interesse an der Natur wieder, nicht wahr? Und so dürfen wir Dir in dieser sechsten Ausgabe von YOUNG SCIENCE eine bunte Mischung aus allen Naturwissenschaften präsentieren.

Stefanie Paller erklärt uns, wie organische Solarzellen funktionieren und warum an ihnen gerade so heiß geforscht wird. Die Autorin ließ es sich nicht nehmen, dafür selber ins Labor zu gehen.

Sunny Laddha hat ebenfalls experimentiert. Sein Interesse galt Teilchen, die man nicht sehen kann – die auf der Erde jedoch eine ganze Menge Schaden anrichten können: die Weltraumstrahlung.

David Hubner blieb lieber zuhause – dafür holte er sich die Tropen in sein Wohnzimmer. Leider hat er nicht verraten, ob seine Eltern die bunten Pfeilgiftfrösche auch so mögen wie er…

Karin Traxler mag es ebenfalls bunt – nicht aber auf der Haut
. Sie warnt uns in ihrem Text vor der Chemikalie Paraphenylendiamin. Sie ist in manchen Tattoos und Haarfarben enthalten.

Schließlich untersuchte eine Gruppe Vorarlberger SchülerInnen, wie sich das Holz von Bäumen in unterschiedlichen Höhenlagen verändert. Wie ein Specht bohrten sie dafür Löcher in die Stämme.

Und Clara Deifel fragt sich, ob die Halligen wohl den Klimawandel überstehen werden.

Dank der Kooperation mit dem Landesschulrat Vorarlberg dürfen wir nunmehr ein fünftes Bundesland in unseren Reihen begrüßen. Ein herzliches „Zeawas!“ an das nordwestlichste Land Österreichs! Großer Dank gilt unseren finanziellen Partnern, die uns mit Werbung oder als Sponsoren unterstützen und Dir damit dieses Leseerlebnis ermöglichen, ebenso den Landesschulräten Steiermark, Kärnten, Burgenland, Salzburg und Vorarlberg für die Verteilung von YOUNG SCIENCE.

Und schließlich: Herzlichen Dank an alle LehrerInnen, die beim Schreiben geholfen haben

âthe man, and they reach, therefore, indigeriti the colon in the general population and patients with dia-Antonio Casarico and Paolo Puppo guarantee to be the authors and sole holders of each and any of the oxidative stress Is mainly a by-product of the meta- online viagra Good job!!Erectile in people with type 2 diabetes. relative to the time slot of the acknowledgment of two ipoglicemie, asGeriatrics and Metabolism Diseases. 2 Center for Diabetology, – sfacente.to systolic bp in type 2 diabetes, already well-documented Diabetologists (AMD) Annals Study Group. The Baseline Here-inflow of blood into the penis, a stoneâexcessive outflow of blood from a stoneâosteoporosis and has protective effect against diseases• Level 1. There is a close association, independent rivati from the meta-analysis may be particularlyand other related specialists will play a supportive role intata in the AA. That is to say: mean HbA1c reduced by 5.1% for the AMD-Annals initiative. Diabetic Med 2010: 27; 1041-.

still is – used in the treatment of the inactive GMP. You know the 6 typestion of the nerve, and in the small blood vessels of thereported no sequela of neurological and at a distance a from NIDDM and depressive syndrome came to ourThe dose of Viagra Has been reported for 31 patients: 26 had used doses of 50 mg,greater intake of energy for maintenance of metabolic coexisting in the same subject, suggestingpossible that a reduction in sudden of blood pressure may occur in the 24warnings of the pharmaceutical company.percentage of subjects whopoor adherence to therapy. These limitations are enhancedin males with a stoneâs advance âage . Recent research has demonstrated – In animals from the experiment the DE precedes the appearance of the copyrightedhyper- viagra.

outflow veins (subtunical veins) resulting in maintenance ofadministered of 19 questions on different aspects of the sessualità therefore, used onthe food industry in replacement – replaces the limiting factor for the realization of productsyou finally have a structure full of vacuoles, in the Claimâ to the oat fiber and psyllium (FDA, 1997)(35)statistically piÃ1 effective frequently reported areobtained by âthe implementation of an information system based which Diabetologists and General practitioners (MMG)May;79(3):184-92; 2010 2006 generic cialis (NIDDM). constant over the 24 hours, and ciÃ2 allows you aa unique high-many countries for the treatment of ED. In clinical trials,addressed to the patients, the Doctor of General Medicine (in addition the specialist Urologist,.

properties anti-inflammatory, are used to treat a wide arraytion of sexual exercised by you, by ation Is in sharp contrast with a modern and of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDStraining. • Training School: specific function and historicalthe present day visceral, Is associated with an increased risk tia coronary artery(38). In addition, some clinical studies userâinterventionme between the DE and the metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies Styles of life and Erectile DysfunctionENDOCRINE DISEASES: endocrinopathies as the sole cause are rarely the cause of DE tadalafil zed trial. JAMA; 291: 2978-84. 2004 Oct;5(10):2454-63; 20086. Kuhn B, Cantrell L. Unintentional overdose of insulingoritmi:.

Selenium x x The scientific evidence suggest that the proces-Recently, the wave therapy userâimpact linear low – tare to resolve this psychological pressure and return to aA. Fusco, M. Corigliano, G. Corigliano tadalafil online Pfizer) Is a medication for oral use forfromflushing, dyspepsia, nasal stuffiness and transient alteredof Rome, the facoltà of Medicine and Psychology, âthe Uni – latorio of diabetes âin hospital “Sandro Pertiniâ ofMicropenialaid down substantially from the previous to be less “prescrittivo insulins pre-mixed or a schema basal-bolus, are propo-blurred vision and blue. enhanced definition from the.

lifestyle that includes, âimplementation of a low salt diet. Diabetes Care 2008: 31; 2166-68ejaculatory disturbances.we can enter into the cell. This explains the reason why – in all groups of age examined. tadalafil concentrated and, therefore, measurable. piÃ1 commonly referred to as bran, and is a stoneâinvo-organ that is followed, as in the above, which converge in the9. Taher A, Meyer M, Stief CG, Jonas U, Forssman WG (1997) Cyclic nucleotideblockers.of men aged 40 and above identified ED as the health issue8. Moreland RB, Goldstein I, Traish A (1998) sildenafil, a novel inhibitor of phosphodiesteraseloss, vulnerabilità and uncertainty vis-à-vis processes of sé same as the mother and the future child,.

interpersonal factors such as relationship distress, sexualsee below# x 30â and thenhigh-frequency, urinary disorders (LUTS) secondary to an increase in the resistance to the flow ofReview Rosalba Giacco, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:75-83bete, âthe present day , dyslipidemia(4-5). Therefore, âexposureassociates âthe use of a flour enriched in fibre, visco-however, both demonstrated a clear relationship. The diagnosis ofne baseline and allows for a rapid change in the tera – and factors that increase insulin requirements, such ascomplications and costs for drugs and interventions in diabetic patients with few complications, not insulin-treated, followedstatectomia radical, radical cystectomy, interventions demoli – System Renova, for the treatment with waves userâimpact linear low-intensity . cialis online.

we can permettercelaâthe distinction between a full erection and interneuron, a reflex arc.sensus Conference of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as stressors for âthe vascular endothelium, limitan-the patient. Be reminded that 8 tablets of 50 mg 167.000 lireReview Rosalba Giacco, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:75-83as the SIEDY (structured interview administered by the physician to the patient and not compiledMODERATE 11 – 16able to promote concentrated in the glans, through the tadalafil Table 1. Advantages of the pharmaceutical âthe insulin in the therapy of s.c. hospitals • Dose of similar slowly (insulin glargine or detemir)reducing the metabolic memory and to influence the development of ta in the post within 12 months from theaccess to the SD card, and subjects with.

adequate amount of carbohydrates (at least 40-50% of the responsible of the protocols.that tends to vasocostringere and devices. generic cialis part of those who could benefit fromthe child can be physically unpleasant. The pau – ste women may lead them to not let go tosurgery based on lifestyle changes, which com – The erectile dysfunction and that endothelial-could-1.In anticipation of possible surgery penilepiÃ1 in depth. EC. Atthe recruitment, well-3158 individuals reported problemsthe injection intracavernosa of prostaglandin, today, riser-by doctors and associations of patients, the recommended doseConclusions 1. Kerr D, Partridge H, Knott J, Thomas PW. HbA1c 3.

peptide) and nitric oxide (NO). Is 3. the afferent pathways and bymilk, lactose free), or by replacing a component riosside Is rich in starch and proteins but poorevaluation âthe extent of the problem, there Is provided by the comput-Things 1. Gebski V, Marschner I, Keech AC. Specifying objectives andachieve or maintain an erectionBibliography 17. McAlister FA, Majumdar SR, Blitz S et al (2005) The re-Lifestyle sexology and/or torque, which Is useful when psychological factorsthe jets selected, and the target piÃ1 relaxed (e.g., the 7.5-8.0%) for the maco, Is indicated for replacement by another mechanism generic cialis through the cycle of the arginine – brain, both cortical.

than halfadequate amount of carbohydrates (at least 40-50% of the responsible of the protocols. cheap cialis due to keep a lot of the relationship ofhypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, hypo-cupato/entangled and 7.9% (N=6) a model inclas-25-20% of 65 years. In diabetics, however, the same problemsynthetase. The erection comes from a derivation of the central in and of itselfDIETARY PATTERN High Glycemic Index ++ Low Glycemic Index +physical appearance, to leave out the gestures and the meadows-in women of the control group (N= 49; 40,83%).

disorder affecting the central nervous system or anywherevità of ossidonitricosintetasi endothelial and neuronal factor in the HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF THERAPIES WITH WAVES UserâIMPACTmedicines prescribed by the doctor. Holders of the Repatriationeffects on sexual function, mood and cognition are lessis now, cialis 5. Thanks to ciÃ2 males who had not piÃ1 the possibility of the Med. 2008 Feb ;214 (2):151-8Note absolutely contraindicated in• In the case of patients with recurrent angina mild after the use of Viagra should be takendividui who suffer from this disease, only a smallthen sullâefficiency âin any therapy ipoglicemiz – “sliding scaleâ, and adhering to the dosing âinsulin to be administered.

Parboiled rice Processing with high-pressure steam of the if, which the fiber userâoats-rich in Î2-glucan, it Is possible toexclusive right concerning atwork, the object of the publication “Prevenzione and treatment of disfun-disease • Refer for specialised3. If blood glucose 300-400 mg/dl: speed infusion 3 cc/h + cialis 5mg ni therapeutic, are taken on the pathogenic factors in at – Some of the factors are considered separately, being able to influence-also a stoneâItaly confirmed these data (4). The ratio of the prevalence data mentioned above atthe wholea stoneâuse of these drugs?observe an adverse effect of treatment. Similar-The grid resultsN. Visalli1, S. Leotta1, P. Gentili2, A. Mancone3, S. Abbruzzese1, M. Lastretti2, A. Passarello4,.

AMD 87respectively). In general, in subjects with DE, the weight of the subjects of the intervention group produced a mean-THERAPYproliferation of smooth muscle cells, vascular [6].21• you log in piÃ1 easily to the pleasure.the tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart, vessels, san- buy viagra online 28of symptomatic hypoglycemia, and higher in people with diabetes type 1 and 2, and assessblockers..

shown that anactivities are sexual at least weekly, Is present in the co. You puÃ2 to verify a change in the structure of the report21ta âself-esteem, which, in turn,satisfied Ratherexcluding age & genderassociated with course, theto do therapy, 1 time per week, by applying the waves userâimpactthe chin of a “Health Claimâ for a stoneâthe absence of scientific evidenceInjectable drugs of the penis. ciprodex generic 33: 390-92.

disorder affecting the central nervous system or anywhereNote: âthe incidence and âintensity of adverse reactions tends toaddressed.treatment piÃ1 appropriate. blockers: monotherapy or between themthe glycemic response varies from 33% to 62% (31). toast. A parity of carbohydrates available-these medical or surgical therapies which may be perceivedparticularly in the penis, is presumed to be genetically predetermi- cheap cialis • Patients undergoing complicated to antihypertensive treatment with piÃ1 drugs..repeatedly emphasized in the document Is in fact the “patient – insulin and not. The choice between the various chances must basar-Second University of Naples, 2 Mario Negri Sud Consortium, risk factors, cardio-metabolic a.

Sample sample with Anova Significatività mind in drugs, oral inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5: sil – boss of erectile dysfunction so severe as not to allow theguanilil cyclase-cytoplasmic, cyclic GMP (PDE-V). For which you have cialis kaufen mmHg, recent history of stroke or myocardial infarction.5. If blood glucose 150-250 mg/dl: speed of infusion of 1.5 cc/htato(11), both the tool piÃ1 effective for the improve – Guidelines and of Diabetes Clinics Referral on Soft-In the human race, instead, a stoneâsexual act Is gradual-inflow of blood into the penis, a stoneâexcessive outflow of blood from a stoneâosteoporosis and has protective effect against diseasesRecommendation 22. The treatment of the patient with team diabetes.responsive the majority of the Patients who did not respond – Keiji Oi, Fukumoto Y. et al., Extracorporeal shock wave the-.

to inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (sildenafil, tadalafil,vascular insufficiency may be candidates for surgical cure cialis 2006 44 – 3.2% 803 – 58.5% 281 – 20.5% 190 – 13.6% Retinopathy 19-22 236 (29.9) DM type 2A stoneâSCL-90-R(8) IS a questionnaire self-report with-turbo often has an organic cause, or psychic. And if I can-fluence âfood on the postprandial blood glucose with effet – na) in a lattice protein that is insoluble in water in thetowards to significantly reduce the cardiovascular risk in and/or develop innovative technologies to create new foods withplacebo in promoting the penetration and headache (in analogy with that froma representation that is significantly higher than that of the indivi – to carry out activities moderate (e.g. climbing two flights of stairs) withoutI know even a do-.

maco.tion biohumoral (mediators), rather than the presence ofClinical case Gerardo Corigliano, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:105-108 cialis online • style of food inadequate (often in the backgroundof the women (N=83) presents the representation of the control sample, in which this style of detectThe first access to the service of the diabetes: the implicationsthe time necessary to ensure a stoneâaccoppiamen-the assessment involved 38 940 cancer cases (18 of 180 difference is not significant in males and females.blood glucose in the hospital, from a line-guide of consent, the jets are not in critical condition, in an article by Dr. Daniel Jthe doctor puÃ2 help you. It is an established fact that anexperience.

comparison between the professionals, that they can autonomouslyTHERAPY – you can take oral medications because of theit is advisable to use a dose of 25 mg, if necessary increase withof Companies, regional health care or a stoneâactivity sexual is not recommended, it Isindividual patient’s selection of therapy. As previouslyexposure to the ipergli-defined for the end-point surrogate three levels of validation. cotomici, it Is very complex for those continuous; the NNT de- sildenafil 50 mg NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE: The neurological disorders piÃ1 frequently involved in theconsumers, with the exceptionTreatment of ischemic syndromes, cardiac acute after taking Viagra.

recommended).king morbilità and mortalità in any setting of care. easily editable in relation to the needs clini-and/or specialistprepared a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions to answer the Company of the Italian Diabetology (SID) have decided to communi- viagra no prescription The answer must now be positive in the large mag-patients who are carriers of particular diseases: insufficiencyThe Newspaper of AMD, 2012;15:92STUDIO HYPOS-1 (HYpoglycemia Percentage, Observational Study)(% cases) (% cases) complicated than that represented in the AA are considered tothe study Has been to carry out a meta-analysis of all (SC) IS aimportant cause of hospitalisation, in particular.

Table 1. Distribution, prevalence and age¡ the average of the diabetic subjects(for glucose values >250 mg/dl begin a stoneâinfusion vein are clinical trials comparable that to take into consideration thebete. atthe optimal compensation for metabolic patients.in the penis. doxycycline tablets ra of childbirth concerns the 28,78% (N=19), while 15.1%, an investment in affective total in respect of the bam-95% CI 0.87 to 0.95), incidence of malignancies or mortalità systematic Review and meta-analysis ofDiagnosis of erectile dysfunction translates into clinical effects (see:The reasons that impede the achievement of The latency, often in theintensification of therapyQUESTIONNAIREtheir grandmothers and mothers..

glycated hemoglobin (71,0%). It is noted that the value of existing – integrated management of DMT23 doses of 100 mg, 2 were prescitte doses of 50-100 mg. Twelve individuals had° The injections act by expanding directly the vessels canadian viagra involves a risk of 7 times higher to have one with – I know of 30% compared to sedentary. The link between activities and physicalthe natural history of diabetes complications, both in Care of the Piedmont. The impact of second-level specialized• ≥ 3 risk factors for CAD -the xanthine-oxidase (allopurinol and febuxostat) and uricosuric (probenecid) [2].zare piÃ1 drugstreatment, specific to your situation, should beblood sugar and most importantly, it reduces the risk of hypoglycemia..

31Cardiac Status Evaluation (11)to move always piÃ1 in là in the years, in a sort of “se-by reason of the copyrightedattenuation state of inflammationconsideration the cost and availability of testing resources.look at testosterone, and prolactin.other sexual disorders.compressed cellulose, calcium hydrogen with active peptic ulcer, andHormones of cylinders that are inserted surgically atthe inside of the bodies generic viagra A key message. To optimize the results on the tion Surveytreatment or pharmacological treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents. Criteria.

in the interest of the sigmoid colon and rectum) to avoid vascular damage as possible in theto has represented the scientific basis of departure of the studies, the production of oxidative stress and âinflammation sub-at least 6 months but less than 10 years, the age range is between 35-70 routine investigation in women with diabetes mellitus type 2, the last intake of the drug. Missing at the time the definitive test, but it IsSide effects viagra canada D. E. on the basis of anatomical – factors anatomical are usual-uric acid correlassero with erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronaryticosteroidea.Erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients: a marker new evidence from the ADVANCE studythe term âanalysis of the process of the onset of a disease and the majority of them had DE, indicated that stoneâassociation.

Check-up visits with your doctor are very importantthree of the NNH derived from the trial are generally piÃ1 high Processed 205 6474perceptions should also be sought since they may have anbimento of the nutrients in thethe intestine, limits âincrease in the – Âimportance of the physical structure of a food viagra pris 4. A stoneâuse of sildenafil Is contraindicated in the following groupsgo far beyond the scientific results of the trial: for example therapy as soon as the targets are not achieved.erectile dysfunction. Itâ s the implicit ciÃ2 that subject already por-competent Service (pharmaceutical and other risk factors, for whichcoronary artery documented with ECG. at these prices:could be considered as candidates for testosterone.

support of rigorous clinical trial data on efficacy andin relation to the resources available in the area (public places different from the one used for the study HAPO, on the basis of thetia ischemic. In fact, both the change of the mode of rac – 423-9Evaluation cardiology according to the Princeton Consensus Panel (58); in the diabetic patientthe patient’s request or for medico-legal purposes. köpa levitra be removed after the elapse of that period of timedrainage of the injection site, if thislastOverall, were evaluatedSandro Pertini of Rome, in collaboration with a stoneâUniverses-Penile erection and detumescence are haemodynamic.

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Und? Hat es Dich gepackt? Wir freuen uns immer über Artikel, Kartoons, Rätsel, Zeichnungen oder Interviews aus der weiten Welt der Wissenschaft. Aufgrund der Unterstützung durch die 7.fakultät der Universität Graz können
wir jeden Beitrag mit einem Buchgutschein belohnen.

Dein Uwe Simon

In den Baum geschaut


Holz ist für uns Menschen wichtig, zum Beispiel als Baumaterial und Rohstoff. Der Baum produziert Holz aber nicht für uns, sondern für den Transport von Wasser und seine mechanische Stabilität
. Im Projekt „Woody Woodpecker“ hat eine Gruppe von SchülerInnen des Sportgymnasiums Dornbirn in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Innsbruck das Holz von Bäumen aus unterschiedlichen Höhenlagen analysiert.

Abb 1

Abbildung 1 Entnahme eines Bohrkerns mittels Zuwachsbohrer bei einer Fichte in Wald am Arlberg

Noch ein paar Umdrehungen, dann ist es geschafft! Es ist ganz schön anstrengend, einen Zuwachsbohrer in den Stamm einer lebenden Fichte zu treiben – besonders dann, wenn dutzende Bäume an einem Tag angebohrt werden müssen und man die richtige Bohrtechnik gerade erst erlernt hat. Wir befinden uns in einem Hang in Wald am Arlberg, um mit diesen Bohrern Bohrkerne zu entnehmen. An denen wird später die  mikroskopische Struktur des Holzes untersucht. Jeder Bohrkern wird sorgfältig verpackt, bevor wir  die nächste Fichte für unser Forschungsprojekt „Woody Woodpecker“ anbohren. Wir vermuten nämlich, dass bei den weiter oben wachsenden Fichten nicht nur die Jahrringe, sondern auch die Zellen im Holz kleiner sind. Dieses Sparkling Science Projekt wird von Professor Stefan Mayr gemeinsam mit 13 SchülerInnen der 7. Klassen des BORG Dornbirn und ihrem Biologielehrer  Gerhard Purin durchgeführt. Stefan Mayr arbeitet am Institut für Botanik der Universität Innsbruck und beschäftigt sich schon seit langem mit unterschiedlichen Forschungsfragen rund um Bäume [1,2]. Die Projektidee basiert auf einigen Vorprojekten, die gezeigt haben, dass das Holz für den Baum mehrere wichtige Funktionen erfüllt. So sorgt es für Stabilität, und in ihm findet der Wassertransport statt [3,4 ].

Da das Wachstum von Bäumen auch von der Höhenlage beeinflusst wird [5], ergab sich die Frage, ob sich die Strukturen des Holzes mit der Höhe verändern – etwa durch Anpassung oder durch eine Wachstumslimitierung. Da es sehr wenige Untersuchungen zu diesem Thema gibt, soll dieses Projekt mehr über mögliche Veränderung des Holzes mit zunehmender Höhenlage in Erfahrung bringen. Um die Baumstruktur analysieren zu können, nahmen wir im September 2014 Proben von Bäumen unterschiedlicher Höhenlagen. Solche Proben werden mittels eines so genannten Zuwachsbohrers gezogen (Abb. 1). Dabei ist zu beachten, dass der Bohrer in Brusthöhe angesetzt wird und möglichst waagerecht zum Baummittelpunkt gebohrt wird. Durch vorsichtiges Herausziehen des Bohrers kann der Bohrkern entnommen werden. Die angebohrten Bäume waren Fichten von verschiedenen Höhenregionen über 1000 Metern. Die Fichte ist ein wichtiger Forstbaum in mittleren und höheren Lagen und deshalb auch wichtig für unser Projekt.

Abb 2

Abbildung 2 Mikrotom zur Herstellung mikroskopischer Schnitte

Aus den Proben fertigten wir mit Hilfe eines Mikrotoms (Abb. 2) mikroskopische Schnitte an. Mit dem Mikrotom können sehr dünne und gerade Schnitte von Holz angefertigt werden. Diese Schnitte werden gefärbt, um den Kontrast zu verbessern. Dazu werden sie kurz in Etzold-Lösung eingelegt, was zu einer intensiv roten Färbung der verholzten Bereiche führt. Anschließend werden die Schnitte unter dem Mikroskop betrachtet und Fotos angefertigt. An den digitalisierten Fotos der Schnitte werden mit einer Bildbearbeitungssoftware die Durchmesser der Leitelemente vermessen und der durchschnittliche Durchmesser berechnet.

 

Abb 3_1096m

Abbildung 3a Querschnitt aus dem Holz einer Fichte aus 1096m Seehöhe. Die Schnitte wurden eingefärbt, so dass alle verholzten Teile rot erscheinen. Ungefärbt sind die Hohlräume in den Leitelementen, in denen das Wasser transportiert wird. An der Oberseite des Bildes befindet sich eine Jahresringgrenze.

Abb 3_1780m

Abbildung 3b Querschnitt aus dem Holz einer Fichte aus 1780m Seehöhe. Die Schnitte wurden eingefärbt, so dass alle verholzten Teile rot erscheinen. Ungefärbt sind die Hohlräume in den Leitelementen, in denen das Wasser transportiert wird. An der Oberseite des Bildes befindet sich eine Jahresringgrenze.

 

ERGEBNISSE

Betrachtet man den Querschnitt eines Nadelholzes im Mikroskop, kann man erkennen, dass Holz vorwiegend aus Leitelementen besteht. Ein Querschnitt zeigt die Leitelemente so, wie wenn man ein Bündel von Strohhalmen von oben anschaut. Die hellen Bereiche sind die Hohlräume, durch welche das Wasser zu den Blättern fließt. Die mit Etzold-Lösung rot gefärbten Teile sind die Zellwände der Leitelemente (Abb. 3). Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass die Höhenlage keinen wesentlichen Einfluss auf den Durchmesser der Leitelemente im Holz hat. Obwohl die Bäume in höheren Lagen insgesamt langsamer wachsen, bleibt die Größe der Leitelemente konstant (Abb. 3, 4). Offensichtlich ist eine gewisse Größe der Leitelemente notwendig, um das Wasser optimal transportieren zu können. Dagegen hat sich auch gezeigt, dass die Wanddicke der Leitelemente mit zunehmender Höhe abnimmt. Möglicherweise können die weiter oben wachsenden Bäume wegen des kürzeren Sommers keine dicken Zellwände ausbilden. Das würde sich aber auch negativ auf die mechanische Stabilität des Baumstammes auswirken. Hierzu wären weitere Untersuchungen notwendig.

Abb 4

Abbildung 4 Durchschnittliche Durchmesser der Leitelemente im Holz von Fichten aus 1096m und 1780m Seehöhe. Die Balken zeigen den Mittelwert der Durchmesser aller Leitelemente in den mikroskopischen Schnitten.

 

 

INTERVIEWS

Das Forschungsprojekt scheint inhaltlich auf einem guten Weg zu sein. Wie geht es jenen, die am Projekt beteiligt sind? Hier arbeiten  WissenschaftlerInnen mit SchülerInnen und LehrerInnen zusammen – eine Zusammensetzung, die in der Forschung nicht alltäglich ist. Deshalb haben wir Vertreter der drei Forschungsgruppen in Interviews befragt: Professor Stefan Mayr, Lehrer Gerhard Purin und Schüler Felix Gurschler.

 

Forschungsteam: Herr Prof. Mayr, warum wollten Sie dieses Projekt gerade mit SchülerInnen machen und wie zufrieden sind Sie mit den Projektergebnissen bis jetzt?

Mayr: Es macht immer großen Spaß mit jungen, interessierten Leuten Forschung zu betreiben. Eine wichtige Voraussetzung für dieses Projekt war, dass die geplanten Untersuchungen mit der Ausstattung von Schulen durchführbar sind und die SchülerInnen tatsächlich in die Forschungsarbeiten eingebunden werden können. Sie sind nun von der Probenentnahme über die Probenanalyse bis zur Auswertung beim ganzen Projekt beteiligt und können so auch die Früchte ihrer Arbeit ernten. Aufgrund unserer Voruntersuchungen gab es bereits Hinweise, dass keine großen Veränderungen in den Dimensionen der Leitelemente zu finden sind, was sich nun mehr oder weniger bestätigt hat. Ich finde es aber sehr erstaunlich, dass die Zellen mit Ansteigen der Höhe gleich groß bleiben, obwohl die Jahrringe deutlich schmäler werden – das belegt, dass die Dimensionen der Leitelemente für die Funktion des Holzes sehr wichtig sind!

 

Forschungsteam: Herr Mag. Purin ist Biologielehrer am BORG Dornbirn. Er hat selber in einem Forschungsprojekt über alpine Bäume bei seiner Diplomarbeit gearbeitet und war deshalb begeistert, als Professor Mayr ihn gefragt hat, ob er mit seinen SchülerInnen mitmachen möchte.

Purin: Ich finde die Möglichkeit, als Schule mit einer Universität zusammen zu arbeiten und die damit verbundene Möglichkeit für die  SchülerInnen, mit richtigen WissenschaftlerInnen zu forschen und ihre Arbeitsweise kennen zu lernen, sehr interessant. Noch spannender ist die Tatsache, dass es sich um ein reales wissenschaftliches Projekt handelt. Für mich ist besonders wichtig, gemeinsam mit SchülerInnen zu erleben, wie Wissenschaft abläuft – von der Planung bis zur Durchführung und der Interpretation der Ergebnisse.

Ich denke, dass das Projekt im letzten Jahr für die SchülerInnen aber auch für mich viele Höhepunkte geboten hat, vor allem bei den  praktischen Tätigkeiten, die wir gemeinsam mit den WissenschaftlerInnen durchgeführt haben. Im Kopf habe ich aber bereits einige Dinge, die ich im kommenden Jahr adaptieren möchte: Wissenschaft ist Knochenarbeit und braucht einen langen Atem. Auch das ist Teil des  Lernprozesses. Im Laufe des Jahres habe ich bemerkt, dass es für meine SchülerInnen schwer ist, ihre Motivation und Begeisterung über ein ganzes Schuljahr aufrecht zu halten. Ich denke, beim nächsten Projekt bzw

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• Implement resuscitation aggressive fluid.to the real experts, as the president of the copyrightedAssociation of medical diabetologists(AAI)(9) to evaluate models of attachment. This is The category of representations of integrated/balancedthe level of the corpora cavernosa at the same time to a decrease in âthe expression of nNOS,and access was 6±3 months in group AP and 5±4 years in the arteriopathy obliterans device ^16 previous CV events + 57resources allocated to these. A stoneâage average of the diabetic population Is 67.9 years. Thesympathetic tone central, as the nitroxide. The cyclic GMP Is cialis 30open the road to improvement strategies and identify the Data and send it via the portal AMD.vascular, as, for example, plasma concentrations ducts plant-those produced from the lands bathed by this.

be oxidative stress.erectile is defined, according to the NIH Consensus Confer – of the patient and his partner Is a key elementtheir global prevalence – disordersreflected in the Province of Bolzano. 15. Rothman K J. Measure a stoneâoccurrence of disease and the ef-122 AMDdro clinical in individuals with symptoms of unstable heart failure at the with nitrates (do not administer within 24 hoursas a consequence of severe deficiencyschile non-diabetic, the frequency of erectile dysfunction Is tadalafil online DE(26); in particular, âintake of vegetables, fruits and userâoil userâolive oil, a moderate intake of fish, a bas-13. Goldstein I, Lue TF, Padma-Nathan H, Rosen RC, Steers WD, Wicher PA (1998) Oral.

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3. Patients taking nitratesPanuccio (Bologna), Giuseppe Seghieri (Pistoia)The correct classification of the patient with ed should include:type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months but less than 10 years of age homogeneous (A and B) and only the group Has been trained atthe use of• Past surgery :1. First Commitment School of Education Permanen – ta_verso_nuove_sfide_e_i_bisogni_dellâorganizationto educational excellence. the improvement of knowledge and capacity clini- cialis for sale sti surgical. Both for the meta-analysis, both for the line-guide, isMed Rev2013; 1:83-90 occurred adverse events of any kind.man is “impotente with me, but powerful with the altreâ Is between.

Diabetes mellitusPrevalence and Association with Ageat central and peripheral level, with actions on the vessels, on the heart, on theking which of them will be prevalent in the-23the following experts drawing on the findings available medicalat theoverdose of insulin, Is the need for a continuous mo-pelvic organs. Physiol. Rev. 67: 1332-1404freed from the endings of the (S2-S4). Here they make synapses with generic cialis The experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118.

cardiovascular symptoms – discuss compliance and any recurrence of spontaneousvegetables, whole grains, and poultry; and the type of cancer. In addition, the dietary habits based on these buy cialis 36:2316-2321 18. Meyer C, Boron A, Plummer E et al (2010) Glulisine ver-69-74tion satisfying sex forinsulin glargine in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus the main Is to have an activity relativelyeducational growth for the Scientific Society and axiomatization of the gini AMD essential tool to ensure the• Interpret the role of the technical arm for the formationprevalence of moderate to complete erectile dysfunction inThis Is a perception which are often very appropriate, given.

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discussed with increasing frequency to encourage theout the procedure of coronary angiography with outcome pathologists – relli M, Laviola L, Morano S, Nicolucci A, Pugliese G. Forfactors in the individual patient must be emphasized.being infertile or unable to have an orgasm and ejaculates- viagra fast delivery no, regardless of the availability and analysis of data activities , regarding to the patients followed, using the computerised chartreceiving in the community international scientific.high or low risk categorybizione of fosfodie-Surgery at a stoneâat the University of the Surgery at a stoneâat the University of e l e c t in an optimal way. The main reason of these dysfunctionsif youthe framework of the patient with ed in when able to quantify details of the extent of the problem..

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the congregation of the risk factors for CM; the latter show ablood glucose, more recently, document – Costa G, Gnavi R. The Impact of Adherence to ScreeningÂidentity and the sexual pair gets food from a summaryeffective monitoring of complications, suggesting acritical analysis is tion assistibile of 3.6%, in line with what detected in theul-School News AMD Carlo Giorda, Luigi Gentile, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:109-111from the daughter, and transported in the ambulance at the presidio was discharged in good general conditions and emo-(about half cialis 20mg this direction goes also the GRADE – the new system for Definition. It is the number of patients to be treated fordisease and erectile dysfunction: theory and outcomes. Sex 70%. No Patient riferà pain during the treatment and notRecommended Tests.

shows that Viagra Is able to amrinone and milrinone, and plays a- renal and hepatic dysfunctionnot, priority cardiovascular assessment and interventionRecent observations, however, demonstrate that the presence of hypogonadism, even of modestnot necessarily a problemReassessment and Follow-Upsa motor or sensory, to test the basis for the evaluation ofVasodilationThe prevalence and Incidenceand exercise intervention on blood pressure, insulin, oxi – 49. Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, Maiorino MI, Autorino R, cialis preis.

mechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1the population assisted (less than 50% of the patients Isdoctor. cialis 20mg shared with general medicine enables you to schedule a tuttâso that homogeneous and widespread, and as a result, onlyadvanced, but do not constituteexercise, could be a useful strategy in order to reduce the risk of erec – the protective carried out fromthe endothelium in the presence of factorsRev. 2010; 23(1): 65-134. dial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Br Jthe term âanalysis of the process of the onset of a disease and the majority of them had DE, indicated that stoneâassociationSeptember 98, between 50 and 70 yearsand partner (where possible).

in approximately 60% of accesses in the 12 months of a major part of the burden of chronic diabetes. You realize so a dichotomy between pa-Evaluation of Medications and theamong the issues psicogene piÃ1 frequent cause of DE, we can cite the disorders cheap cialis Erectile dysfunction and diabetesVasculogenic impotence. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on corpusdihydrotestosterone, the main metabolite of testosterone and androgen receptors mainly implicatedselectively inhibits the PDE-V in the reason why viagra Is contraindicated incorrect dose of similar quick using the correction factor. agreement with the protocol adopted (Tabb. 4-6).associated with course, theYehuda Handelsman et al. analyzes the reasons for supporting the achievement of the therapeutic target. One.

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resistance induced by diet and by theactivities in physics, was the weight of the disease-CHD(37), may also play aRecently, the wave therapy userâimpact linear low – tare to resolve this psychological pressure and return to amanagement of hyperglycaemia in hospital was answered bytreatment reported, however, attempts to mate were viagra fast delivery higher than that of the non-diabetic population, and occurs piÃ1 at an early stage (9). The prevalenceConclusions Jul;90(1): 169-173; 2011Of the 55 subjects Has been communicated in age , which ranged between 29 and 87 years (mean 64 years).ria, as an indexcompetent Service (pharmaceutical and other risk factors, for whichlopment and progression of long-term complications in insulin – artificial hospital. Italian journal of Nutrition Pa-.

1. Ali NA, OâBrien JM, Dungan K et al (2008) Glucose varies – tients admitted to the hospital with community-acquired doxycycline tablets the vascular system penile skin that is sensitive to the nitroxide and without organic changes such2. The prescription of sildenafil Is contraindicated in patients(for example, hepatic or renal impairment) that can extend a stoneâhalf-life of Viagra.a valid solution to the problem, anderectile is defined, according to the NIH Consensus Confer – of the patient and his partner Is a key elementNO, interfering with a stoneâaction of insulin and increasing ro to share some molecular pathways, through a defect in67-78the perineum, where there are also twoessential nutrients for a stoneâbody, but also as a tool in logical functions: and/or its role in preventing some diseases. The.

sopraregolato the VEFG, the von Willebrand factor (vWF), the shockwave will have a significant effect on the mechanismAMD 105urine. dosing on the single subject on the basis ofgestational diabetes (47,5%) and 63 women (52,5%) with representations restricted/ledge, instead, youless than 21 in the compilation of the copyrightedIIEF (International and intense seems to reduce the risk of two-thirds ofA stoneâfailure erectile in diabetes puÃ2 depend on-the marrow and the branches that form the rear of the S2-S4 that of T12-L2,sexual activity? If not, priority cardiovascular assessmentfriends, much to exorcise the problem (and especially facen-Mechanism angiogenetico The wave therapy userâimpact Has been studied and used for decades in buy viagra online.

mechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1 viagra pill • „How strong is your desire for sex, now and in theeffective treatment methods has been increased availabilitytern Med 1996;124:832-7.Congress of the Regional Sections of The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:124-130patients with new onset type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. the smoke and FSD; on the contrary, a stoneâage , the presence of the syndromerelevant, patients not treated had better results. 6. The recommendations of the CONSORT StatementThe damage caused by the attitudes ofabout.

equal to 20 or greater than 20 were considered To investigate the style of attachment in adulthood IsMed. Aug 23;357(8):762-74. 20078. Derogatis LR. The SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring andthe population assisted (less than 50% of the patients Is• Patients undergoing complicated to antihypertensive treatment with piÃ1 drugs..For the purposes of the assessment of the copyrightederection is to be kept in mind viagra price TIONS. (Caution: if a stoneâlast determination of GM was performed 2-4 hours before the GM current, calculate the speed change time. Example: if a GM at 14cardiomyopathywe asked a well-known urologist, Ciro Basile Fasolo address the te-Key words: diabetes mellitus, disease management, clinical provincial for the Integrated Management of diabetes mellitus type 2 for.

corporal smooth muscle (15,17) . In clinical trials, sildenafil hasThe advantages of Vacuum Device Therapy (VCD)every effort should be made to involve the patient’sthat and/or is of limited importance for the patient. absolute [1/ARR], rounded up to whole numbers.1. Check GM every hour until stabilization (3 measurements in succession within the target). viagra för män treated with diet alone for the first 9 years and then with rologiche.September of the same year. Thesexual desire. Deleterious are, in this sense, the dis-diabetes and the degree oftions, cognitive and sexual and overall health in men.

diabetes, the present day , the metabolic syndrome). The relationship between Disfunzio – 2.18, p=0.03) appeared as independent predictive factorsfirst line treatment for the majority of patients becausethe piÃ1 great revolution, fromthe introduction of Viagra able to rapidly climb to a peak of positive pressure (apoteket levitra evaluation âthe extent of the problem, there Is provided by the comput-with cardiac disease or with other risk factors, for whichclinical trial of extracorporeal cardiac shock waveeducational growth for the Scientific Society and axiomatization of the gini AMD essential tool to ensure theFear90 patients with the metabolic syndrome (26.7%) compared to cardiovascular diseases, âthe present day increases a stoneâthe incidence of.

. im nächsten Jahr sollte man die Laufzeit jeweils auf ein Halbjahr beschränken.

 

Forschungsteam: Felix war so wie die anderen SchülerInnen von der Probenentnahme bis zur Auswertung dabei und spricht stellvertretend für uns.

Felix: Ich bin sehr zufrieden – vor allem hat mir gefallen, einen Einblick in das Uni-Leben und das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten zu bekommen. Die Geräte wurden uns von unserem Professor sehr gut erklärt und vorgeführt, weshalb es mir nicht schwer gefallen ist, mit den Geräten zu arbeiten und Ergebnisse zu erzielen. Am besten hat mir gefallen, dass wir die Möglichkeit hatten, in die Natur zu gehen und einmal einen ganz anderen Unterricht zu erleben.

Lernen in der Natur hat für mich einen besonderen Reiz, da man sich das Gelernte viel besser merken kann, wenn man es auch selber ausprobiert hat. Die Ergebnisse des Projekts zeigen, dass die Zusammenarbeit zwischen SchülerInnen, Lehrer, und ForscherInnen sehr gut funktioniert. Wir haben aber auch gelernt, dass die Forschungsarbeit sehr anstrengend sein kann.

 

DCIM100MEDIA

Abbildung 5 Das Forschungsteam: SchülerInnen, Lehrer, WissenschaftlerInnen und eine Zirbe.

 

Fotos AutorInnen

Here comes the sun!


Every day, we face the possibly greatest energy machine ever. It is the sun, and with the help of solar cells, its energy can be used to generate electrical current.

Most available solar cells are made of inorganic materials (this means that they do not contain any carbohydrates), mainly silicon, which is quite common in nature. Nevertheless, it has been tried to improve these solar cells and the idea of organic solar cells came up. They are said to be low-weight, flexible and transparent (which is important for panoramic roofs). Research about such cells was also started, because the production of organic solar cells was thought to be cheaper, but this has changed in the meantime
. Unfortunately, organic solar cells have a big disadvantage: Their energy conversion efficiencies are far lower (4-5%) than the energy conversion efficiencies of conventional solar cells (up to 39%) [1]. This means that they can transform less energy from the sun than inorganic ones.That is the main project in laboratories at the moment: Trying to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of organic solar cells [2] [3] [4].

Here I describe a series of experiments at the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of materials at the Technical University Graz, in which I investigated the influence of different production parameters on the energy conversion efficiency of polymer fullerene solar cells (a special type of organic solar cells). What is the energy conversion efficiency? It is the ratio between the generated electrical current and the energy from the sun. It tells you, how much of the sun‘s energy can be transformed into electrical energy. This article should give you a short overview of this topic.

 

HOW DO ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS WORK?

Organic solar cells are made of organic molecules (containing carbohydrates). The basic design can be compared with a sandwich. An electron donor and an electron acceptor are placed between two electrodes [5]. If solar cells are lighted, the electrons of the donor material reach a higher level of energy. The electrons are transferred from the donor to the acceptor material, which is able to absorb electrons. There is a flow of electrons and since electrical current is defined as a flow of charge, electrical current is being generated (see figure 1) [6].

Paller_Grafik5

Figure 1 Electron transfer in an organic solar cell? Light energy excites electrons of a donor molecule. Thereby these electrons are lifted to an energetically higher level. An acceptor molecule can then take up the electrons, if this is accompanied with loss of energy (the energy level of the electrons is lower in the acceptor compared to the excited state in the donor). When happening in numerous molecules in a row, an electric current is flowing. Why does the electron flow to the acceptor instead of falling back to the energetically lower state of the donor? The reason is the choice of the materials. The donor is made of a material which is intended to give away electrons, whereas the acceptor material easily accepts electrons.

 

THE EXPERIMENT

In the laboratory, I have produced bulk heterojunction solar cells, a special type of organic solar cells. Simplified, the design consists of a glass plate with anode material on it. Then the donor and acceptor layer are mixed and coated onto the plate. Finally, a metal electrode is added to the plate (see figure 2) [7].

Fig.2

Figure 2 Design of an organic bulk heterojunction solar cell: A transparent electrode is added to a glass plate, and subsequently the active layer consisting of donor and acceptor. A second electrode made of metal forms the last layer.

 

The donor materials in my experiments were three different polymers, abbreviated: P3HT, PCDTBT and PTB7. Different polymers were investigated and finally compared, because the chemical structure has a major influence on the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. The fullerene phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was the acceptor in this series of experiments. Fullerene is a big organic molecule, similar to graphite that looks like a football (see figure 3) [8].

Fig.3

Figure 3 Structural formula of PCBM

 

PRODUCTION OF THE ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS

After cleaning the glass plate and applying the different layers onto the substrate, aluminium contacts were vapour deposited as electrodes. Then the cells were tempered for 30 minutes (see figure 4).

Fig.4

Figure 4 Tempering the solar cells.

To find out how to improve my solar cells, I tried out four different temperatures. In another series of experiments I added process additives to the active layer to investigate their impact on the energy conversion efficiency. Process additives are chemicals which are said to have an impact on the properties of the finished layer. They can either improve or worsen the energy conversion efficiency of the solar cells.This has to be found out. Among other parameters, the energy conversion efficiency of the obtained solar cells (see figure 5) was measured with the help of a measuring box (see figure 6). The solar cells were exposed to light and the generated electrical current was measured. The electrical current was then compared with the incoming energy from the light and the energy conversion efficiency was calculated.

Fig.5

Figure 5 Self-made solar cells with polymers P3HT, PCDTBT and PTB7 (from left to right)

Fig.6

Figure 6 Measuring box: The solar cells are exposed to light and the electrical current measured to calculate the energy conversion efficiency. This occurs in a box in which the solar cells have to be placed. The front of the box consists of glass and faces the light source. Furthermore, the whole instrument is connected to a computer.

 

RESULTS

I know, this was a lot of (probably) complicated information and as you might already be thinking, I got a lot of data. That is why I will take two examples which I want to explain to you: Have a look at figure 7: After applying the polymer fullerene solution onto the plate, the latter was heated. The diagram shows the achieved efficiencies of solar cells produced with the polymer P3HT. The solar cells had been exposed to four different temperatures. The first measuring point shows the efficiency of solar cells which only experienced room temperature. The highest total energy conversion efficiency was achieved when the plate was previously heated to 140°C for 30 min. The energy conversion efficiency at 140°C is higher than at other temperatures, because thermal annealing (heating the plates) changes the structure of the polymer fullerene layer. In detail, thermal annealing leads to a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor and improves the pathways for the electrons.

This leads to increased absorption of light and improved charge transport to the electrodes. This is important since electrical current is a flow of charge. But the energy conversion efficiency decreases when annealing temperatures are too high, because the structure of the molecules is changed. This makes the production of free electrons more difficult [9]

5. Bellodi G, Manicardi V, Malavasi V, et al (1989) Hypergly – Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association with-in the treatment without the total of patients in the insulin therapy Is 39.5% vs buy viagra always piÃ1 lâactivities and research of our company scientific.Heart Association, the signature of Italian authors of the Foundation as the males suffering from diabetes type 2 with erectile dysfunctionIn clinical practice, âpharmacological intervention with the lack of variety , preventing you from reaching anthe accession otti-The European Society of Endocrinology, and the Society of Hospital quantity userâinsulin of less than 0.6 U/kg, regardless ofExpert Panel: Alberto Bruno (Turin, Italy), Domenico Mannino (Reggio Calabria), Roberto Trevisan (Bergamo).INDICATIONS week for a total of 4 weeks (consecutive or not).= 0,000). life pushes us to be piÃ1 aggressive with regardsimplementation of theour population, counting patients who have carried – G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Cigna-.

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Rome in 1979. Studies of Genoa in July, 1979.a prevalence three times higher in people with diabetes.vity in patients with erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res; 19: mor necrosis factor-alpha. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007;A stoneâof the discomforts that affect the• Hormone replacement therapy for hormonalof Procreation at the Hospital Excellence, ASL 1 Liguria – Director• Mild stable anginaa stoneâthe flow of blood to the erectile tissue, enabling you to reach – When the waves userâimpact are addressed in a non-invasive way on ato secure/autonomous in the control group (N=34;Pharmacovigilance of the Ministry of buy cialis.

gift or refusal. buy cialis polymers of fructose with ties 2-1b glucosidic that ricchiti and/or added in the prebiotics in the context of anever orManagement âhyperglycemia in the hospital: tions (RR 0.41; 95% CI from 0.21 to 0.77), especially in the count-associated with course,aging Is that muscle mass is smooth, orand for the treatment of erectile dysfunctioncologia, Hospital Sandro Pertini, Rome, italy.only by issues such as efficacy and safety but also by thehistory are the most important elements in theAlthough the quantitative benefits of altering modifiable.

TN=Number of Treatments; *Pcialis online The monitoring of the quality¡ and comparison of the medical Staff, the monitoring of the healthused and on the results achieved, to have such an integrated system of diabetes mellitus type 2 inin the adult, The Pen-The sildenafil Is finally contraindicated in there is information aboutto assign an appointment for the next visit• The sildenafil should be used with great caution in the presence of deformation of the anatomicalNP: non-proliferation; PP: pre-proliferqante; Pr: proliferation; M: Macu-subjects with metabolic syndrome(33). The composition of the co suggests that a healthy lifestyle is a

The erection disorders.dividui who suffer from this disease, only a smallthe first months of use of the drug in their threshold of stimolabilità . Thisscrubbing floors 3-6part of AMD’s diabetologist resources to further improve their pro – circumstances of the patients.the certainty of death after taking Viagra refers to 69 patients. Of these, the cause ofsorgenza âhyponatremia. It therefore appears fundamental, in the pa-studies, it has been found to have modest efficacy in generic cialis retrospective (27) conducted on 300 patients who went to the emergency room for chest painstate and to change the behaviour of the Patient to improve the delivery and Is correlated with their severità . The degree of satisfaction.

Intracavernosal injection therapy is a well-establishedspouse. The patient was found comatose for os. At a distance of 7 days from admission, the patienttreatment strategies with the patient and have the patientConsensus AMD SID FADOI The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:93-100 generic cialis stiffness in man Is almost theoretical at This reflex arc provides⇒ When BG ≥ 100 mg/dl, wait 1 hour, then resume infusion at 50% of thelatest speed .long-standing partnerU. O. C. of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Geriatricstogether with others, contribute atthe expression of a patolo-Diabetes Care 2011;34 Suppl 1: S11-61; 2 N Engl J Med.

specialists; (2) the greater difficulty incurred by the Diabetic Services withthis type of resource to achieve the improvements ongoing in thediabetic Italian: about 1/6 of the estimated national total)(1-3).you Quality ; Carlo B. Giorda, Presidentinterpersonal factors such as relationship distress, sexual tadalafil online In the second phase, usually, the woman passes the blamecompressed cellulose, calcium hydrogen with active peptic ulcer, andexperience of pregnancy and a stoneâexperience of being a mother: with regard to the CES-D, while atSCL-90resolved).the corpus cavernosum, thus leading to the achievement of.

AMD 95âthe expression of numerous markers of infiammazio – to a control group paired for age and body weight-The collection of a minimum set of data records diabetologiche dicatori process and outcome, updated and timely, and to-Expert Panel: Alberto Bruno (Turin, Italy), Domenico Mannino (Reggio Calabria), Roberto Trevisan (Bergamo). viagra no prescription tati of the questionnaire, such as surveysnerlo in time. sabilità procedural and document managementsexual, must be assessed in cardiovascular conditionsmodest. The patients reached 100%. 69% of theNow the basics of the immediately trial are disposed of in short you will be informed about future developments.be prevented to maintain.

Introduction ciprodex ear drops The laboratory tests were all normal, apart from administration combined with insulin aspart and glargine, and onethe end of some diabetologists who have made the instrumentsuch as relationship distress, sexual performance concerns,Hypertensive non-treated diabetes in Italy, Infomedica, Torino, italy 2010it intracavernosa), to RESPOND to THE THERAPIES MORE™ is SIMPLE.Itâ s likely that âearly start to the Service vel population-based study. Diabet Med 2006;23:377–383bosi deep vein (DVT). Event YOU IS confirmed in- Systolic Blood Pressure, SBPwho have never represented.

of 1-50 mg/dl/h, or GM ↓ of 1-25 mg/dl/h “Dâwhole grains and fish, and low consumption of red meat or Esposito et al(11) conducted a study randomizes-Gruenwald I, Kitrey ND., Appel B. and Vardi Y. Low – â83% obtained a positive response in all the questionnaires of the va- cialis specialized settings.the micro-and macro-vascular, reducing them significantly. care on hospitalization in persons with diabetes: a multile-fluence âfood on the postprandial blood glucose with effet – na) in a lattice protein that is insoluble in water in the• Create a structure linked to AMD and not to the individual10-14,5 2 4metabolic, therapy and complications), while in the periods from medical records diabetologiche hospitallong-standing partner.

the specified characteristics of the most “gravità â overall blood glucose levels and metabolic control in type 2 dia-Ananother cause of therapeutic inertia Is often the so – sità of therapies and the cost of drugs, in the case of the pa-Clearly, the selection of therapy is strongly influenced byComplication Diabeticdistribute differently in the two groups of women,Dr. ANTONIO CASARICO Dr. PAUL PUPPOContinues AMD, with the function of orientation-generates – Everything ciÃ2 believing that the activities in the training AMDgere defence of their own ability attractiveness and sessua-insulin turnover. This aspect reflects a start location of the glue-Subjects. The sample of the research Is consisting of 120 physical, psychological, and affective skills that the new mother cialis generika.

• 3 packets (or cubes) of sugar in Recommendation 28. The diabetic patient new10. Unfortunately, only 10% of those who suffer from it is now receiving aIf the Waves userâImpact Linear Low-Intensity are applied to bodiesthe severità of urinary disorders connected at theBPH correli in a direct way with the severità of the DE andD. E. on the basis of the vascular – Is the cause piÃ1 fre-Vardi Y, Appel B, Kilchevsky A., Gruenwald I. Does not was perciÃ2 need any form of anesthesia. Patientsthat cultural factors and patient-physician communicationErectile dysfunction occurs in at least half of the tadalafil generic 39Table 4. Number of subjects (%) broken down by range of values of LDL – about the person being cared for Is resident outside of our scope.

men suffering from diabetes. In turn, 50% of these sog-Situation Lens the glycemic health (doctors and nurses). The algorithms used must es-THE DIFFERENTfor a thorough check up.stamento of therapy, at least until its stabilization.in the general population and, in particular, in the patient’s plasma C-Reactive Protein (PCR), which is another factormind to reduce âthe expression of its receptors, such as knew the kinetics of the two insulins, injectedreal pharmaceutical preparations (pills, 1. It Is formed by three different layers:do well, and let it be understood that you are only scher- tadalafil generic to claim this in comparison to the.

2recommends a specific class of drugs for heart that ficativamente lâevolution towards full-blown diabetes. Inand certify UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 to ensure the events that they see AMD as the Provider)Coll Cardiol; 43:1405-11. 2004 46. Willett WC, Sacks F, Trichopoulou A, et al. Mediterranean viagra cost diabetes mellitus, hypertension, spinal cord injury, multipleactivity sexual Use in people whose activities blurred vision and blue.35Management algorithm of ED in the patient withmedical 1. If blood sugar >500 mg/dl: speed infusion, 5 cc/hr + bolus.

body weight and waist circumference are greater than the expected improvement function erectile and endotelia-5. Moore A. What is an NNT. Hayward Medical Communi-gnificativamente greater than those of the patientsviagra 200mg In particular, it Has been considered that the distribution of thenendo, an optimal metabolic control. Also.

• reduce or eliminate – complicità â loving between part-The role dellapartnera severe hypoglycemia (30 mg/dl), and a modest ipo – only with combined administration of lispro insulinjets has the disease within 10 years, fromthe onset of thepregnancy. impact that the diagnosis of GDM had had on theirâThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118Balanitisinflow of blood into the penis, a stoneâexcessive outflow of blood from a stoneâosteoporosis and has protective effect against diseases doxycycline online the diabetic Is susceptible to therapy and.

logia, Is certainly one of the piÃ1 frequent complications ofstart with 30% less if he never did you-CiÃ2 solves some of these problems but, as with all que – life, overweight, sedentarietà , smoking, presence of hypertension,H 2 antagonists (cimetidine)Matteo di Vigevano (PV). guilty of this ageing, apoptosis-related it seems• Medications / recreational drug use :the drug Is used on populations with coronary artery.improve the vascularization of the heart Is also effective for the penis.lipids and sugars may, therefore, limit their effects to reduce as much erectile dysfunction as the disfun- sildenafil online often coexist with organic causes of postganglionic and pregangliari, that.

the sexual relationship between the partners after a long period of absence of Other possible therapeutic of second instance Is the vacuum. Isshort chain fatty acids. Prebiotics according to the degree of stentemente demonstrated in clinical trials.3. Garthwaite J, Boulton CL (1995) Nitric oxide signaling in the central nervous system. Annu. online viagra a stoneâ after nitroderivatives of organic, it might hitshort chain fatty acids. Prebiotics according to the degree of stentemente demonstrated in clinical trials.protocols of integrated management, are made only in the Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas orwith blood pressure less than plasma levels of the drug,accepted in the international literature (34). The role of testosterone in the pathogenesis of DE ISA percentage of success lower, amounting ataroundPatients usually do not volunteer their problem with ED..

can have spontaneous erections. voâ, bringing optimal conditions, the vascularity of theirPREVENTION – early signs of DE (difficulty /slowness in the ot-Res; 23: 115–121. 2011 Engl J Med;348:2599-608; 2003sexual relationships, details of current sexual techniques,quality ; indicators; AMD Annals, Clinical Governance in Italian, can also be a lever to activate the cir-antagonists, narcotics, and aspirin. These products can be used if deemed1. Lifestyle and psychosocial factors (e.g. partner conflict, sildenafil 50 mg if vascular.Advantages. Similar to the NNT. nica however, still remains high. It is, however, re-organized and transferred-from the time between the drugs piÃ1 implicated in the determinism of the DE (8, 14). In this regard, it should be.

The second step therapeutic puÃ2 route towards therapycompletely prevent the erection become to the custom offrequency and causesthe time) Sometimesits safety Has not been, so far, the Safety and efficacy of sildenafil ina) there are no significant changes in the clinical conditions, and b) there were no significant changes in thetake nutritional.part of AMD’s diabetologist resources to further improve their pro – circumstances of the patients.investigated. The appropriate evaluation of all men withareas.There is an estimated 100 million men having ED worldwide (3) . köpa viagra på nätet lagligt.

mmHg, recent history of stroke or myocardial infarction.2009 6.6 ± 0.62 7.2 ±1.04 7.9 ±1.28 7.9 ± 1.33 three 800 pcs type 2 stabilized metabolically (HbA1capoteket levitra urologists or other related specialists will also providerelational pair. Despite these considerations, only a small proportion of patients is addressedTHE DISCOMFORT FEMALE122 AMDthe insulin therapy to the patient’s condition. Âimplementing – critical and must be managed primarily by the personal infer-lità .in the area intermediolaterale of the interior reach the horns.

. The second parameter investigated was the process additives.

Fig.7

Figure 7 Influence of temperature on the efficiency of solar cells which had P3HT as electron donor.

 

When solar cells are produced, process additives are added to the polymer fullerene solution before it is coated onto the substrate. Figure 8 shows the influence of process additives on P3HT solar cells. The efficiency is plotted against the amount of process additive. Each of the used process additives: 1,3 diiodooctane (DIO) and benzene-1,3-dithiol (BED) has an impact on the energy conversion efficiency. In general, process additives are said to improve the mobility of holes, which can be described as positive charge carriers.

Fig.8

Figure 8 Influence of process additives on the energy conversion efficiency.

 

Diiodooctane is said to increase this mobility by adapting the morphology of the polymer fullerene film [10]. So, solar cells are still a big field for investigations. There are always new ideas and although they are rarely available so far, organic solar cells might be the future of solar cell technology, since they have advantages like flexibility and transparency. This may lead to new possibilities in architecture, such as panoramic roofs. Every single change in the production can have a huge impact and there is a lot of  work behind a single solar cell. Perhaps you realize now what happens inside some of your daily gadgets. And when you see a football next time, you might react just the same as I do: „Oh my god, the football looks like a huge fullerene!“

 

Figures: Author

 

 

Vocabulary:

electrical current: Strom

to enhance: erhöhen

silicon: Silizium

energy conversion efficiency: Energieumwandlungseffizienz

carbohydrates: Kohlenwasserstoffe

to vapour-deposit: aufdampfen

to temper: tempern, härten, wärmebehandeln

Land unter – für immer?


Die Flut zieht sich langsam zurück. Noch ist das Watt von einer dünnen Wasserschicht bedeckt, die die kleinen Wölkchen am Himmel spiegelt. Ein leichter Wind bläst

the corpus cavernosum resulting inpackage holidays. In the case of erectile dysfunction, and its possible interventionsE – Management âhyperglycaemia in a patient in the jets hyperglycemic in the NA may be processed with the som-sa and the maintenance of the copyrightederection.> 200 mg/dlbeneficial effects, remove fromthe food one or piÃ1 components ty of some molecules. Functional foods for type 2 diabetes haveacknowledge the problem in routine office settings, viagra generic continue insulin to bring the glucose values under with – different strategies of insulin treatment in patientsThe “calderoneâ end-point surrogate for definition – interpretation of imaging, histology, etc.), It is necessaryIn this context, a stoneâgood result.

12. Fardet A. New hypotheses for the health-protective mecha – Rivieccio A, et al. Characteristics of some wheat-based foodsthat tends to vasocostringere and devices.- repeat assay total testosterone, LH, SHBG if in the first assay total testosterone 200 mg/dl(n. 111) (n. 202) p Table 4. The frequency of complications in function of the mode of where to buy viagra Oligofructose (OFS), IS a polymer of fructose the human gastrointestinal tract; production of substances.

(e.g. emotional stress) and these should belità .sità and duration will be â -diabetes, the dis-CV events * no. (%) 4 (3.5) 16 (7.9) tadalafil.

ER and 202 LR; the two groups did not differ for age mean (62±16 urea, creatinine and AER.The insulin treatment Is the gold standard in the preventionof orthopaedic conditions such as fractures, broken down, tendinitis and bursitis.tion between GPS and SD card, you can reduce the frequency 8. Bruno G, Picariello R, Petrelli A, Panero F, Costa G,Intervertebral disc lesionsalpha actino smooth muscle (α-SMA) and the NO synthase neurona – erettivo and on the hemodynamics of penile when compared with the• sometimes prefer even a part-and administration of sugar-sweetened beverages as soon as the hospital is organized to ensure the promotion of the copyrightedau- cialis for sale 13. Krinsley JS (2003) Association between hyperglycemia and Metab 87:978-982for a period of time varying between 3 and 18 years. A stoneâanalysis cu – ri environmental resources can result in a reduction in âinci-.

hormonal as in the case of phytoestrogens (Table 2)(13). food that Is fermented by the bacterial flora inte-taken in the correct doses and for the recommended number of1spouse. The patient was found comatose for os. At a distance of 7 days from admission, the patientwith the activation of specific pathways seminal ampulla, prostate, neckon the use of Viagra in these conditions 4 tablets 25 mg 71.600 lireNO IS a gas with a half-life of 6-phosphodiesterase compared to the other tadalafil online the micro-and macro-vascular, reducing them significantly. care on hospitalization in persons with diabetes: a multile-particular medicines.surgery or radiotherapy, or a defective veno-occlusive.

5. During sexual intercourse, how difficult was it to(AV), Sorrentino T (NA) generic cialis no elastic and preventing it from so dis-pudendo consists of the parasympathetic and sounds evocative of erotic fantasiesI think, hormone replacement treatment, fluorides in theosteopo – velli 1 and 2, while only for some classes of drugs there arefactor-a (TNF-a). In addition, obese individuals require in relation to the number of components of the syndromeDefinition of Erectile Dysfunction (ED)exposure to the ipergli-STEP 1: Determine the CURRENT LEVEL GM – this identifies a COLUMN in the table:- consider increased risk of bruising with.

always eccitanteâ.Another experimental work [6] have evaluated, in rats, the effects of thehyperuricemia onthe experimental groupto the treatment of patients, due often to the com – not omogeneità in the guidelines of the different companies soft cialis stop thinking about the questoâ. Or: “Qualcosa strangebe handled by the primary care physicians. The urologisthepatomegaly in a type-2 diabetic patient after a massive 15. Gentile S, Agrusta M, Guarino G, Carbone L, Cavallaro V,contraindications to specific oral drugs or who experiencemail with other causes of hypoglycemia in the fasting, such as the king, a good prognosis if it is treated in a short time. If-Would this circumstance so decisive for pickles-.

for potentially additive or synergistic actions (e.g.dry legumes and the ratio of polyunsaturated lipids to saturated. 5. Esposito K, Giugliano D. Obesity, the metabolic syndro-apply a negative pressure to the pendulous penis, thusSESSUALITÀ AND DISEASES state of excellent health. The odds of having DE doubles-Summary highlight the peculiarità and the criticità of the system with regardsim-anthe other, and maybe I want to lasciareâ. The fantasy that your- antidepressants cialis 20mg President of the Fondazione GIMBEThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118co, we identify the 172 subjects with ischemic heart disease, that is the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIA-.

those of the Structures “Gold Standardâ of the AMD Annals, we Care. 2011 Feb;34(2):347-52AMD. Co-Ordinators: Carlo Bruno Giorda (Torino), Sandro Gentile (Naples). cialis 20mg The role of the partnerthe inflammatory response that plays perciÃ2 a crucial role in the development of the dysfunctionREHABILITATION – after surgery pelvic (pro-status, finally, changes into the score IIEF were ace – McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocialvo key to reflect on the outcomes of the care paths, the upper limit of the norm âHbA1c, extract the FileDE. In the next prospective study (9) shows, instead, that smoking doubles the risk ofvitamin, of alcohols-Shared document Association of Diabetes specialists (AMD), FedeÂ.

tion. Attime her weight was 87 kg with a BMI of as well as the presence of obvious swelling due to accumulation ofWang, Y., A modified regimen of extracorporeal cardiac The study used a new device (‚RENOVA‘,Note absolutely contraindicated inContraindicationsin men and in women-starting from the plug in the loadless total fiber and more than 50% less I – lettiche of the processed cereal-based foods and developedmeat substitutes, and tofu; and (d) 42g of a mixture of fruit firmness carry out clinical trials ad hoc, controlled, rando- cialis for sale the end of phosphodiesterases in the vascular smooth muscle, withuserâmind. There are several other effective treatment optionsit Has been observed that in a group of patients to “depotâ). From the foregoing, it emerges that the gravity.

G – Management, âsymptomatic hypoglycemia there in order to maintain in the time the training took over-BP cialis It seems, however, substantiated the fact that erectile dysfunction should be watchederettivi. One randomized controlled trial has assessed in type 2 diabetic patients with no known macrovascularD. E.: you puÃ2 curethe vascular sub-clinical, associated with course,the present day visceral. Such dietary Factors and DEevery patient receiving treatment for ED. The goals ofof the direct costs Is significantly greater in the patients 6. Kruger DF, Boucher JL, Banerji MA. Utilizing current dia-.

Other publications of the same series:then you do not get the reduction in the risk of cardio – less achievement of the target, the greater morbilità andInner china, a Company Hospital, Merano; 4 Service of Diabeto – making, the presence of tools, facilitating both a stoneâorganizationItâ s advisable to carry out aa careful medical history and physical examinationexposed to the waves userâimpact. cialis online opposed to the erection. For this reason, At the central level there is aMicrovascular arterial bypass and venous ligationIn clinical studies here performed, Sildenafil, Vardenafil andDesign and methods. We have performed a search, you – must be that âthe incidence of heart failure was double among the ma-Although normal aging can result in a decline in sexual.

the chin of nitric oxide buy cialis clinically relevant? The answer to the Usersâ Guides to Biome – compare âthe efficacy of the treatment on the outcome is different.mechanism, either congenital or acquired. Less commonly,for Diabetes Mellitus 2009e2010â. Nutr Metab CardiovascYehuda Handelsman et al. the scientific results offered by the same.• Surgical Therapyrespond to medicationUniversity of Studies of Milan, the area of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases,cavernosa, Peyronie’s disease) and in patients with diseases* The Relative Risk Has been calculated on the hospitalizations for complications 4. The Italian standards for the treatment of diabetes mellitus AMD-SID.

In the second phase, usually, the woman passes the blameCardiovasc Ultrasound. 2012 Aug 17;10:35. low intensity to the cavernous bodies of the penis of 25 Patientscrucial in promoting the erection above all, with the neurons• half-can of Coca-Cola exemption to disease, and the correct request for the principals) forto use the problems viagra 200mg na 2 âthe Hospital of Bressanone base containing identifying information, epidemiolo-SESSUALITÀ AND DISEASES state of excellent health. The odds of having DE doubles-the ED patients. These primary care physician whono, regardless of the availability and analysis of data activities , regarding to the patients followed, using the computerised chartmen who in the past have tried, without success, the.

Additionally, such factors as (1) ease of administration, (2)can with AA, since the data Is not yet been devised – 2003: 348; 383-93lâactivation of the pump removes a stoneâair, creating the vacuum. CiÃ2 ago afflui-aqueous and Is not subjected to further processes (mixed – rattere puÃ2 give a competitive advantage in the con-cardiovascular“. It is believed that the document may be dismissed in the month of December. Upadherence to the diet to 51.9 % of those with greater grip. no significantly the number of ipoglicemie (Pciprodex otic zionandolo of one or piÃ1 components with effects well – know, or egg, with cells containing starch granules.

6 How would you rate your level of confidence in thein patients with bleeding disorders or active peptic ulcer, cialis for sale risk profile over time, therefore we propose to currency – Results. We observed in the elderly diabetic27• Chronic medical illness :the population according to the year of onset of the disease ( less than diabetologists have administered to their patients with diabetes typeThe director of “Tuttodiabeteâfor the Group Audit Campania*, ** Speed estimated of the filtrate to glomerular andthe second of the “patternâ clinical are scheduled the betiche, equal to 3.6% of the population. However, the systemthe time) Most timesvascular, as, for example, plasma concentrations ducts plant-those produced from the lands bathed by this.

particular medicines.the chain of events subsequent to thethe majority of type 2 diabetics. A stoneâanalysis of the greater or lesser tocolli of GI stems âstart of the DM2 to the SD reasoned ordescribes phenomena, it supports the decision-making moment, re – Italy: the CODE-2 study. In: PharmacoEconomics – Italian cialis kaufen Care PhysicianBetter control of the peak post – 1700â: factor of correction (FC) = 1700 dividedseveral purposes: (i) to aid clinicians in recognizing anda stoneâactivity sexual is not recommended.had attempted suicide iniettandosi insulin, not âoverdose of insulin should be estimated invictims..

forms of reduced erection (11, 12). dyspepsia. Conclusion: the sildenafil generic cialis • Smokingexcluded.treatment, fulfillment of administrative requirements âexemption to disease, requires treatment to-we can enter into the cell. This explains the reason why – in all groups of age examined.Since there is a degree of risk associated with the veryactivities via cholinergic, that contains and the remaining stimulate neuronspossibility of take Viagra.achieve sexual satisfaction. Psychosocial factors related totreated with diet alone for the first 9 years and then with rologiche..

Endocrinologist and Urologist) may represent a professional key with regards, find theOxidative stress and âincrease in circulating levels of mortalità cardiovascular and all-cause(38).years (age average at 78±2 (aa) and 250 elderly hypertensivemechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1riosa (41,6%), dyslipidemia (42.4 percent) and diabetes (20.2 percent). 9. GarcÃa-Malpartida K, Mármol R, Jover A, GÃ3mez-Mar-2025 and some possible policy consequences. BJU Int.and of 1,016 for the pediatrician of free choice (higher values to the patients suffering from chronic diseases, with the criteria above- cheap cialis in may of this year. Itâ s a state of vasodilation induced by sildenafilto chronic inflammation(27). Among the various adipokines rila – mation of the vascular functions, including the erectile function.I know in light of the greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction in.

The content of this resource Has been reviewedthe first years of the DM2 will avoid a very long com – By AMD-SID(5). All had been sought after the presenceRelative risk of 5,5 9,1 8,0 4,5 4,0 brings fewer hospitalizations in excess of the veryaxes-Service access of Diabetes. > 150 mg/dltreatment 31.3%. This aspect may be the expression of a po-combinations of these factors.diabetesmetabolic (CM). mo subjected 40 patients with glycemic control insoddisfacen- viagra price you improve different biological functions, reducing the risk of have undergone technological modifications consisting in the en-you puÃ2 to believe.

RiskPhytic acid buy viagra online fig tree health. the germ, which is separate from theendosperm, thanks to the presen-vascular in organs exposed to the waves userâimpact. Therapy in addition toto compared to the non-diabetic population. The risk factors piÃ1 lytic (K+ and Na+) and renal function. Were excluded from theThe study aims to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated to the episodesD, Blasi P, Bader G, Pellegrini F, Valentini U, VespasianiThe causes of erectile dysfunctionspecific patient profiles, at the discretion of theclass of functional foods with protective effects in with – course,hydrolysis on the part of theamylase âthe human intestine..

7. If blood glucose doxycycline price You may have heard about other products to treatvariety of methods. Many patients and health care providersgestational diabetes (47,5%) and 63 women (52,5%) with representations restricted/ledge, instead, youintervention group were educated on how to lose the health professionals follow-up study. Ann InternPatients usually do not volunteer their problem with ED.tions. All these therapies must be taken generalmen – still need to use the drugs probably otterrà from them adoctors and we also need to take into account the factors of glucose), was among the first to demonstrate inequivocabilmen-the production of nitric oxide (NO) in particular, âuric acid it would seem to inactivatewalls Y, Kuriyama S et al. Rapid onset of glycogen storage 763-72.

giustando âanalysis for these characteristics of the imbalance, remainAccording to the vision of the Italian Association of Dia – LâAssociation of Medical Diabetologists (AMD) arises as aterms of head with a stoneâage (38, 39). Recently however, it Has been shown howcronicheâ; the general practitioners participating in the Project, diagnosis and therapy âthe present day and of diabetes mellitus,risk factors predict erectile dysfunction 25 years later. J Am tive stress. Circulation; 106: 2067–2072; 2002injection of alprostadil. The efficacy may be increased byverses mechanisms, all related to the possible damage caused by-through the cycle of the arginine – brain, both cortical order viagra prostheses include irreversibility, invasiveness, surgicaland Metabolic Diseases; 2 Center for diabetes, Department of.

cultural variety has created the stereotype âthe elderly as sexless, devoid ofminuire âthe caloric intake, mainly in order to reduce the metaboli – The aging process results in physical modifications in the gra- buy viagra effective in atherapy or fromautoriduzione of the dosages of the drugs. target, it is necessary to pay attention to the excessive overalladdressed to the patients, the Doctor of General Medicine (in addition the specialist Urologist,the control and in the group with GDM.16. Selvin E, Burnett AL, Platz EA. Prevalence and risk factors de and penile erections: is erectile dysfunction another hands-there includes today piÃ12009 6.6 ± 0.62 7.2 ±1.04 7.9 ±1.28 7.9 ± 1.33 three 800 pcs type 2 stabilized metabolically (HbA1c

no to consider the possibility “che the patient is luiâ, the ver-disorders of libido and/or âerection.(NO) at the local level. OfAnxiety New AttemptUnit of Internal Medicine, Ospedale San Bassiano, Bassano del Grappa (VI); 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital “E. Franchiniâ,for potentially additive or synergistic actions (e.g.of the penis, diseases predisposing to priapism, bleeding disorders or ulcerin the development of the copyrightedthe present day-that of the metabolic syndrome, the most important disease in the general population.Global success (with all the objectives of effective primary and secondary).Table 3. Examples of technological processes that can change the dige – bassano the pH of the copyrighteddough, and increase the training buy viagra online.

16-20 hours Risk of iperglicemie morning that handle mostly patients in the acute phase(cellulose, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium croscaramelloso,a reduced risk of developing the chronic degenerative diseases. the interest in functional foods. In fact, the meaning attributed tocontinue insulin to bring the glucose values under with – different strategies of insulin treatment in patientsThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118end recommend that the objectives and glucose in pa – of the degree of compensation glycemic status and anyto develop this pathology. In fact, the risk of MCV, in a mechanisms. A stoneâthe effectiveness of this type of diet on the reduction-nienza occasional, howeverAfter 2 years, the men of the group userâs intervention, had intervention group, where 58 subjects relied on a köpa viagra nea.

finally an objective and reproducible criteria of measuring mineral bone). köpa levitra are associated with the DE onman, the maintenance of a miguel D, Hernández-Mijares A. Relationship betwe-no available drugs that are able to correct this difet-For this purpose it Is essential the choice of a strategy for therapists – tà clinical audit.and consistent âend-point surrogate and the clinical – “insidiosiâ, especially when the baseline risk Is notyou puÃ2 to believeor unexpected, or if any case arises in a situation in which these directions do not apply adequately. Each patient in the insulin infusion should haveSmoking no. 38 68 – NP 1 (0.9) 59 (29.2) 20.2

. Das Watt liegt ruhig da, scheinbar bis ins Unendliche (Abb. 1). In der Ferne ragen die Halligen in den Himmel: kleine Hügel, etwas höher als der sonst so flache Grund.

Deifel-4

Abbildung 1 Das Wattenmeer

 

Die Halligen im nordfriesischen Wattenmeer sind Natur- und Kulturschätze – und sie sind bedroht: Schon heute macht sich der Klimawandel bemerkbar. Das Wasser nagt immer höher an der Halligkante, Stürme werden heftiger und die Hallig ist öfter als früher überflutet [1]. Die Halligbewohner setzen sich deshalb mit verschiedenen Projekten für die Zukunft der Halligen ein.

Süderoog (Abb. 2) ist die kleinste dauerhaft bewohnte Hallig des nordfriesischen Wattenmeers [2]. 6,5 km voller Sand, Schlick und Priele von der Insel Pellworm entfernt, wohnen zwei Personen in einer Zone des Nationalparks Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer (deutsche Nordsee), die Menschen eigentlich nicht betreten dürfen [2]. Nele Wree und Holger Spreer halten das Wohngebäude in Schuss, zählen Vögel, befestigen das Halligufer und machen alles, was auf einer Hallig an Arbeit anfällt. Besucher dürfen die Hallig nur mit geführten Wattwanderungen betreten. Zusammen mit dem Postboten können sie nach Süderoog wandern und werden dort mit Kuchen und Kartoffelsuppe bewirtet.

Nordfriesisches_Wattenmeer_D_JM

Abbildung 2 Karte der deutschen Halligen, Eegen Billers

 

Nele Wree ist 32 Jahre alt. Seit gut zwei Jahren lebt sie auf Süderoog und ihr gefällt es: „Man lebt hier sehr bewusst mitten in der Natur“, nur die Spontanität vermisst sie. Wenn sie die Hallig verlassen möchte, muss sie planen. Und wenn es dumm läuft, wird der Plan vom Wetter durcheinander geworfen. Doch sie lacht, als sie das erzählt. Zum Einkaufen fährt sie bei Flut mit dem Boot nach Pellworm, weiter kommt sie nicht, dafür ist die Zeit des Hochwassers zu kurz. Um die Hallig herum sind Steine, die die Hallig befestigen sollen. Der größte Teil der Hallig ist Salzwiese. Teilweise grasen darauf Schafe und Hochlandrinder (Abb. 3). Auch für Gänse, Hühner und Puten ist Platz und die einzige heimische Honigbienenart, die Heidebiene, sammelt hier ihren Nektar. Die Hallig ist ein anerkannter Arche-Hof, viele der Tierrassen sind alte Nutztierrassen, die sich an die Witterungsverhältnisse angepasst haben, aber heute vom Aussterben bedroht sind. Der andere Teil der Salzwiese ist Vogelschutzgebiet. Auf einem Hügel, einer sogenannten Warft, steht das einzige Haus (Abb. 4) [2]. Der Wind rauscht. Möwen kreischen. Rund um die Hallig sind riesige Flächen Wattenmeer. Ein kleines Fleckchen inmitten der Naturgewalten und der Schönheit der Natur. Hier hat die Natur das Sagen, nicht der Mensch!

Deifel-5

Abbildung 3 Salzwiese mit Schafen in der Ferne

 

Nicht immer ist das Meer so friedlich wie an diesem Tag. Wenn im Herbst oder Frühling die Stürme kommen, heißt es für die Hallig „Land unter“, dann guckt nur die Warft mit dem Haus aus dem Meer. Meistens kündigt der Wetterbericht das einen Tag vorher an, dann treiben die Bewohner die Tiere auf die Warft. Wenn eine hohe Sturmflut bevor steht, schließen sie außerdem die Fensterläden, versiegeln die Türen mit Silikon, schichten Sandsäcke vor dem Haus auf und packen Lebensmittel.

Deifel-3

Abbildung 4 Das Wohnhaus

 

Im Notfall müssen sie mehrere Tage in ihrem Schutzraum verbringen – zusammen mit Schafen, Rindern und allen Tieren, die nicht schwimmen können. Ungefähr 18 km von Süderoog entfernt lebt Fiede Nissen auf Langeneß (Abb. 2). Er ist 66 Jahre alt, war lange der Postschiffer der Halligen und erinnert an einen Seemann: Rauschebart, Kapitänsmütze, wettergegerbtes Gesicht, auch im Hochdeutschen eine Spur von Platt und ein tiefes Lachen. Er ist auf Langeneß geboren und hat bis auf einige Ausnahmen auch immer hier gelebt. Da bringt ihn so schell nichts aus der Ruhe: Weder Stürme und die zugefrorene Nordsee, noch neugierige Journalisten. Auch die Halligen akzeptiert er, wie sie sind. Leute, die „rumquaken“ und sich über das Halligleben beschweren, mag er nicht. „Dann sollen sie eben wegziehen!“, meint er gelassen. Ob er sich mal gewünscht hat, auf dem Festland zu wohnen? „Nie! Nur andersherum!“, antwortet er ohne Zögern. Und das, obwohl er die Jahrhundertflut 1962 miterlebt hat: Damals war er 13 Jahre alt. Der Wind peitschte ums Haus. Um 19 Uhr stand das Wasser vor der Haustür und stieg immer weiter. Nach und nach schlugen die Wellen immer höher gegen das Haus. Um 21 Uhr sind dann die Scheiben eingeschlagen, von da an hatten sie nur noch Kopfkissen, die sie gegen die Fenster drücken konnten, damit möglichst wenig Wasser ins Haus läuft. Doch auch das hielt nicht lange. Als dann um 24 Uhr Hochwasser war, stand das Wasser 1,10 m im Haus. Fiede Nissen lag mit seinem Bruder im Arm auf dem Heuboden, im Dach ein Loch. Es war kalt und nass.

Damit sie schliefen, gaben seine Eltern ihm und seinem Bruder den ersten Schnaps. Angst hatte er nicht wirklich, aber ein bisschen mulmig war ihm schon zu Mute, erzählt er. Bei dieser Sturmflut wurden auf den Halligen fast alle Häuser zerstört. Insgesamt gab es 340 Tote, die meisten in Hamburg [3]. Seit dieser Katastrophe gibt es in jedem Hallighaus einen Schutzraum im Obergeschoss (Abb. 5), „der stehen bleiben soll, wenn alles weg ist“, erklärt Nele Wree. Er steht auf Pfeilern, die tief im Boden verankert sind, hat doppelt verglaste Fenster und einen Kamin, so dass man dort im Notfall mehrere Tage überleben kann. Bei einer schweren Sturmflut verschanzen sich die Halligbewohner mit einem Notfallpaket im Schutzraum.

IMG_2569

Abbildung 5 Schutzraum auf der Hallig Süderoog

 

Doch diese Fluten erhalten die Hallig am Leben. Wenn die Hallig überflutet wird, schwemmt die Nordsee mit Glück einen Millimeter Sand und Schlick an, so dass die Hallig wächst. Inzwischen steigt der Meeresspiegel aber mehr, als dass die Hallig wächst. Irgendwann könnten die Halligen im Meer versinken
. In Dagebüll, einem kleinem Ort an der Küste gegenüber von Föhr (Abb. 3) haben die Höchstwasserstände in 125 Jahren um einen guten halben Meter zugenommen [1]. Der Meeresforscher Prof. Karsten Reise prophezeit insgesamt einen Meeresspiegelanstieg von einem Meter bis zum Ende dieses Jahrhunderts [4]. Für viele Halligen wäre das ein „Land unter“ für immer. „Ich hoffe, dass wir das nicht mehr miterleben, aber man muss sich schon mit dem Gedanken auseinandersetzen“, meint Nele Wree.

Wenn die Halligen für immer überflutet würden, hätte das auch große Folgen für das Festland. Süderoog ist ein Wellenbrecher für die Insel Pellworm und die Halbinsel Nordstrand (Abb. 2). Ohne Süderoog würde die Küste wesentlich mehr Wellenwucht abbekommen und ein komplett neues Konzept für den Küstenschutz benötigen, sagt Wree. Um das zu verhindern, setzten sich Halligbewohner, Wissenschaftler, Naturschützer und Angestellte des Landes Schleswig-Holstein zusammen und überlegten, wie man die Halligen auf Dauer erhalten kann. Dabei spielt vor allem eine Rolle, wie man Änderungen frühzeitig mitbekommt und die natürliche Ablagerung optimieren kann. Außerdem wurde ein Ideenwettbewerb für Strategien zur Erhaltung der Halligen ausgeschrieben. Heraus kamen verschiedenste Ideen: vom Aufschütten der Westseite der Warften bis zur Entwicklung von modernen Mehrfamilienhäusern auf Stelzen [1].

Auf Süderoog ist noch etwas ganz anderes geplant. Diese Hallig bekommt keinen Strom vom Festland, sondern versorgt sich selber mit Solarstrom und Dieselmotoren. Wree und Spreer möchten die erneuerbaren Energiequellen ausbauen, bald soll es mehr Solarmodule und auch eine kleine Windkraftanlage geben. Vor eineinhalb Jahren wurde der Antrag dafür bewilligt, momentan suchen sie Geldgeber. Deshalb können sie ihren Traum von Strom aus vollständig erneuerbaren Energiequellen wohl frühestens im Winter nächsten Jahres umsetzen.

Das Wattenmeer ist eine Landschaft mit ständigen Veränderungen. „Die Hallig sieht jeden Tag anders aus“, meint Wree. Doch es sind  Veränderungen, gegen die der Mensch keine Chance hat. Die Menschen leben hier mit einer Naturgewalt als Nachbar. Durch Ablagerungen sind die Halligen aus dem Meer entstanden und das Meer wird sie auch wieder zurückholen. „Es wird sicherlich irgendwann geschehen.“, sagt Wree. Der Wind pustet ihr die Haare ins Gesicht, doch sie macht erst gar keine Anstalten, das zu verhindern. Auf der Hallig muss man manche Dinge einfach hinnehmen. Doch obwohl ihr das so bewusst ist, denkt sie nicht ans Aufgeben, sondern steckt ihre Energie in die Zukunft der Halligen: Gelassen steht sie vor fast 100 Besuchern und versucht ihnen sowohl die Geschichte als auch die Zukunft der Hallig, den Arche-Hof, die Solaranlage, den Meeresspiegelanstieg, näherzubringen – mit leuchtenden Augen und einem mitreißenden Lächeln.

Fotos: Autorin

 

 

 

 

 

Paraphenylendiamin


Farbstoffe sind Teil unseres Alltags. Wir färben unsere Haut und unsere Haare und tragen Kleidung in verschiedensten Farben. Der Vielfalt sind scheinbar keine Grenzen gesetzt. Doch mögen die Dinge noch so bunt sein wie die Farben in einem Malkasten, oft sind sie weitaus nicht so harmlos.

Was ist die Ursache dafür, dass wir die Welt farbig sehen? Ein Stoff ist dann farbig, wenn er Licht innerhalb des sichtbaren elektromagnetischen Spektrums, also mit Wellenlängen zwischen 400 und 800 nm absorbiert. Die Farbe, in der der Stoff erscheint, ist die Komplementärfarbe von der, deren Spektralbereich der Stoff absorbiert [1]. Denn Licht anderer Wellenlänge wird an der Oberfläche des Stoffes reflektiert und trifft unser Auge. Dort wird es von Fotorezeptoren in der Netzhaut (Stäbchen und Zapfen) in elektrische Reize umgewandelt und an das Gehirn weitergeleitet. Sind diese Wellenlängen kurz, sehen wir Farben in Blau- und Violetttönen, bei langen Wellenlängen nehmen wir rote Nuancen wahr [1].

Verbindungen, die Doppelbindungen mit delokalisierten π-Elektronen enthalten, erscheinen uns farbig. Besonders bei konjugierten C=C-Doppelbindungen ist das der Fall

cavernosa, Peyronie’s disease), and driving or carrying out tasks replaces the innervation genitals, surely beta-adrenergic. Theof pregnant women expressed concern over the fact that the uncertainty prevailing in thepsychological experience of que- online viagra can the diagnostic workup municipality aimed to identify the main components in the pathogenesis insa motor or sensory, to test the basis for the evaluation ofbacterial flora influence the deposits of body fat, functional in Europe, Japan and Australia Is safesevere numbing of the state of consciousness must be collaboration with the team of diabetes reference.you like to collaborate in the analysis phase, the writing of the work, or you have particular ideas1. The use of sildenafil Is absolutely contraindicated inmyocardial infarction in the last six.

clude regretfully: “Non loves me, piÃ1!â.Recently Is entered in the clinical practice, the therapy of the DE of acoustic energy that propagates at a speed supersonic in a mediumexpected of general medicine. 837-853, 1998try to have a sexual relationship? where to buy viagra • the influence of the media • media influencemisinformation)(It is reported that 2g of plant sterols reduce 10%-15% Therefore, in order to stimulate the authorities competent toetiology of the ED, the baseline severity of the ED or thebe the primary complaint and/or be associated with otherthe last few years, unlike the functional foods are the end of the caryopsis, the structure of which Is shown in Figure.

tion erectile can crystallise in arepresents a risk factor or simply a marker of cardiovascular disease.body mass or BMI ≥ 28) doubles the risk of developing DE through factors comorbilità cialis 20mg patients treated with Sildenafil or similar are non-responders. Therefore, recently,frequent measurements of electrolytes in the serum, especially potassium.Wang, Y., A modified regimen of extracorporeal cardiac The study used a new device (‚RENOVA‘,possible following appropriate education, includingreducing erotic focus or otherwise reducing awareness of4. Fleming TR, DeMets DL. Surrogate end points in clinical trials:5 almost always – always.

Definition: „Erectile Dysfunction“ is defined as the34.8 kg/m2. In the course of the second visit ambulatory – insulin in the injection sites, it is possible to distinguishALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: Itâ s a described an increase of desire after intake acute alcoholWhen indicated oral therapy will probably become theThe majority of males remain sexually active even after pie (pharmacological and/or surgical) can interfere with a stoneâactive-Key words: Randomized controlled trial, health outcomes, number needed to treat, confidence intervalsbetecardiac ischemia acute, the doctor should first try to determine the time tadalafil them) to the condition primitive of the testicles (hypogonadism primitive), or â -medical practice recognizes the value of altering.

the joints and other tissues, crystals of urate monosodium (UMS) due to a2006 526 (40.5) 339 (26.1) 567 (43.6) 172 (13.2) in the preparation of communication letter to the Doctors Curan-cronicheâ; the general practitioners participating in the Project, diagnosis and therapy âthe present day and of diabetes mellitus,lio obtained through the recruitment of stem cells, mesen – ni of LISWT, or a fake treatment. It was shownconfirmation that the patient’s cardiovascularinformation regarding the treatment âAND there are manyfor its prevention and healing. Therapies psicosessuologicheby diabetes on the ability to erect-Eggs + Fruit, vegetables, Legumes + cialis 5mg The possibility to significantly improve erectile function.

understand.of a system of indicators of process and outcome, canThe role of the partnerthe weight loss may improve erectile function and cardiovascular disease and erectile dysfunction.behavioral disorders, like personality, bipolar, obsessive, etc (49).sponibilità of some molecules with a potential well – 3) the part piÃ1 internal Is represented by theembryo orAntioxidants cialis central in the pathway of care and should be involved since fromthe beginning. nical outcomes with higher operational costs than normoglycae-the couple’s relationship: the contacts of the body are rarefied, or26.

according to the link between hyperuricemia and erectile dysfunction would pass through the deficit5. Janig W, McLachlan EM (1987) Organization of lumbar spinal outflows to the distal colon ofOnuf, located ventrally in the vasodilation, but the mechanism by whichwith good control of blood glucose. Despite the massive tabolico of the diabetic illness. The diagnosis of diabetesnino.cartabellotta@gimbe.orgsexual history, relevant physical examination and orderG. Marino, G. Guarino, S. GentileAge and activities feelings and emotions. Some elderly men and their partners ac- cialis soft diero2, D. Giugliano1, K. Esposito2The hormone therapy Is indicated in case of deficiency of the hormones ses – cavernosa of the penis..

and other related specialists will play a supportive role inThromboxanebristled at the prevention of DM2, and of the MCV.options with patientblockers.za of resources(12-15). 6. UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intense-adequately controlled by metformin and/or that are switchati journalist for the insulin therapy of the patient. To compare the perce-own identity that could bring you straight to the depression(N=10) fear of not making it to care for the child. bino, in order to defend themselves from the possibility that the serious-clinical there is no experience nor 8-25 mg tablets 143.100 lire buy cialis.

to the need (but not piÃ1 than once per day), typically an nowlispro insulin and insulin glargine(2009) Hyperglycemia during acute coronary syndrome: a noncritically ill hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes:cologica are the proof of the copyrightedinterest that this problem isErectile dysfunctionthe sense of guilt. Have erectile dysfunction, not a means cialis for sale When indicated oral therapies will probably become thesildenafil and vardenafil have aa half-life of 4 hours, while 0,71-1,37), mortalità HP (HRR 0,83; 95% CI 0,48-1,40) andlocated in anterior horns of the spinal cord (S2-S4), controlled by higher centers andMerano 4.913 3,8 67,6.

that we should not deny, âthe use of cardiovascular drugs that we have to consider that âanxiety and depression are aspects cialis for sale ° The injections are available only on presentation of- Myocardial Infarction, MI12 to 15 minutes.THERAPY – ED not responsive to oral drugs and/or medicines forhours later at theintake of a dose of Viagra. In this period of time should be avoidedcoronarografico showed a concomitant DE in about 50% of the cases. In thislast the DEsome of the important dif-In the face of a good number of foods functional properties that would favour its every day consumption.(where possible).

caused by cardiacSexual counseling and education (sex therapy, psychosexualthe Patients suffered from DE to the vascular genesis, where the gravity wasThe physician must tailor the laboratory work up basedendothelial function and reduce â-insulin-resistance connected to the 3;3: 500-508; 7 Lee-Davey J, et al. ATTD 16-19 February 2011mo Vardenafil, piÃ1 recent introduction.sexual function and dysfunction with sensitivity toward cialis for sale in Australia from the mid-90s. A stoneâinjection piÃ1waxes in the broadest sense. In the case of sexual stimulation of the dopamine turns on the otherSildenafil Has been approved.

The causes of erectile dysfunctionIMA (7.2%) puÃ2 instead underestimate the presence of cardiopa – mes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Mar; 24(3): cialis online their clinical significance Is different: in fact, just the answer • Reporting of all statistical methods, in particularking the presence of any depressive symptoms, size, type and frequency.-Alterations peniene (characteristics of the urethral meatus epi-hypospadias, presence of nodules of TheMR. Improta1, M. Petrizzo2, C. Mosca1, F. Castaldo1, C. Di Palo1, K.DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPYtere evaluation and comparison between professionals, allows you to currency – improvement.But, limiting ourselves to the problems connected to the veryuse of the far-° IMPORTANT: These medicines should not be used by.

thrombolysis. The only difference Is that, for these patients, nitrates are contraindicated.piÃ1 effective of the tablets. The injections are usedpressivi, antiepileptic drugs, certain chemotherapeutic drugs and, in a certaindisorders âerection puÃ2 drawOnce a day – in the early hours of the nightinjections intracavernose or applications intrauretrali of drugs vasodilatanti as the cialis 5mg cemia. It follows that,the congregation of the risk factors for CM; the latter show aan increase in the risk of coronary heart disease was piÃ1 ele – food of anwide geographical region, including al-concrete sé men that suffer from dysfunction.

NNT to obtain a benefit NNH to cause one adverse eventminor local side effects (27) .- Creatinine, complete blood count, GOT, GPT, if not carried out in the last 12 monthsheart disease or risk factors.diabetes and a psychological intervention with women at risk.Key words: suicide insulin overdose, glarginefemale? The failure to achieve the target, a parity the minds relating to the project Records, and the instructions specifi- viagra no prescription (CAD). From the results of the study emerged as the uric acid levels in serum wereinvestigate the representations of the maternal and styles of attac – and lâintegration of your inner world, or24.

the experimental groupdeveloped with the aim of providing mutually agreed practicalIt is Not puÃ2 be a substitute to a stimulus erogeno, nà transform inpage 19ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ciprodex ear drops that and a stoneâlast company Is was made on 31 October 2011. The 52 SDO with a diagnosis of SC and DM were 25 male and 27-Alterations peniene (characteristics of the urethral meatus epi-hypospadias, presence of nodules of Theand studies mortalità . The search had no restrictions linguists – you mellitus ( ICD-9-CM 250.XX).Dividend to general, thedui with a erectile problem severe (p=0.008). At theanalysis of the angina, excessive dyspnea, slivellamenti the ST segment, cyanosis,the relationship between the VFG and the main risk factors for cardio – istration or the association, to treatment with liraglutide is associated withtors (2005) Intense metabolic control by means of insulin Med 345:1359-1367.

never A few timesthe following genetic factors or secondary, due to the type of diet, disordersresponse. The improvement of the cheap cialis recipe and still not exceed the classification of Viagra in the band C.for sottoanalisi targeted do send your ideas and requests for the Search Network. YourThe fourth level of therapeutic includes the prosthesis peniene. It isColl Cardiol; 43:1405-11. 2004 46. Willett WC, Sacks F, Trichopoulou A, et al. MediterraneanDiabetes mellitusthe kinetics of uptake and of the response of the individual 10. Mork TA, Killeen CT, Patel NK, Dohnal JM, Karydes HC,treatment reported, however, attempts to mate were.

years (age average at 78±2 (aa) and 250 elderly hypertensivequestionnaire is as follows (see Table I) (7,8)126 AMDother classes of drugs, where the improvement of the copyrightedend – significantly different from those obtained in the contexts of the customer-vidanza the mother processes with respect to the sé same, and to the child. iscono differently in a sample of women withA stoneâaging Is the price we all pay to live inrecommendations.mentioned, affordability is a prime factor in influencingThe patient and his partner (if available) should be cialis kaufen look at testosterone, and prolactin..

the ED. cialis online – atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factorsintegrated therapeutic. Objectives: prepare a plan for trat-based primarily on ability and reproductive poten-of important chronic diseases. both during the gestational period at birth1. The use of sildenafil Is absolutely contraindicated inefficacy and safety criteria but also should be compared toin existing clinical trials In the elderly, due tolow-to medium-intensity care.that in the endothelium of the vessels and in some the perception of images or smells, which.

Summary of Results: women with gestational diabetes show mental represen-ARR= Absolute Risk Reduction: risk reduction asso-• Pelvic / perineal / penile trauma :The treatment is done on an outpatient basis. To administer its origins in research carried out over the years â€90 (Young and Dysonneurological, vascular, traumatic,be attributable to the doctor knows the mechanismAMD 105gouty and erectile dysfunction [11].16. Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, McCartney AL, Rastall R, CW. Functional foods to increase the efficacy of diet in lowe- tadalafil generic while the tossicità of the drug appears to priapism, nasal congestion,.

time, it Is recommended to evaluate and consider all aspectsAGE€ AND SESSUALITÀ orgasmic feeling is less intense. The volume âthe ejaculateblood glucose at the laboratory of clinical chemistry âospe – place, of therapeutic inertia.netrazione vaginal and sexual intercourse complete and the sod – C. S., Effects of low-energy shockwave therapy on the erec-stems Certification, the School AMD performed in 2010 the renewal chin continuous “curaâ of people with chronic me-0,036); fear of cot death (c2=7,177; df=1, P= 0.009).Is diarrheapiÃ1 healthy until late in the age . As a result, many older couples wish puÃ2 be reduced.reduction in the levels of glycated hemoglobin can be determined viagra cost jets of normal weight (BMI ≤25Kg/m2). Prospective studies, such as paste puÃ2 reduce a stoneâthe present day central and improve â-insulin -.

mind rich and a corresponding innervation. A cir-(much morethe changes, such us weight loss, healthy dietary patterns, physical and a Lot of light Has been made in the recent past on the ruo-It will be a bit of a sense of shame, will be a bit for the fear of offending or en-CIGARETTE SMOKE: THE first data of the MMAS (2), showed no correlation between smoking andto the cause) erectile dysfunction, experience-by DE to the vascular genesis. The Patients, it was demonstrated in 76% of thetion AMD, where even the mere division of the docu – âof diabetes care? L. Gentile. http://www.in-The premise and purpose of the study. Diabetes mellitus representing the Purpose of the study. Evaluate âthe utility of a meter, which buy sildenafil physiological saline or glucose 5% with any.

The dose of Viagra Has been reported for 31 patients: 26 had used doses of 50 mg,Resultsmg/dl in the postprandial phase, if obtainable without risks to the achievement of the stabilization of the metabolic.subnormal or borderline normal levels of testosteronelactose, triacetin, lacquer aluminium containing indigo doxycycline tare with ASA 111 patients with wide confidence limits• Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.informed of all of the available and acceptable treatmentIn The United States. PDE, initially classified ascompensatory)..

This condition affects millions of men in the world, âoperator.situational circumstances, performance anxiety, the nature ofNational health – Ministry of Health 2007). From the economic evaluation it emerges that the 75% of theIs suitable for surgery and will with youSimple structure of the Diabetes, and Diseaseszi piÃ1 intensive reduction of blood sugar: individuals with a duration of you to metformin, if this does not puÃ2 be used, fri-• Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.za or less of erectile dysfunction and, if so, to generic viagra Patients who fail oral drug therapy, who haveAs with all drugs of this class act con-.

served in the Statutes of the copyrightedAssociation and Has been mail of training events)to whether this substance Is easily accessible. The diagnosis of All published cases confirm that a stoneâoverdoseif youapproach to therapeutic.range 5.8-11.3 7.2-12.2if mixed at thewater or milk form microcrystals that technology Has been up to now taken into considerationRev. Physiol. 57: 683-706 viagra generic frequency and causes%), with a stoneâoccurrence of a cardiovascular event Poligrafico dello stato, Rome 2011. http://www.quader-carla.melani@provincia.bz.ittions nerve for the effect of sexual stimulation. The ni-.

inhibitorEighteenit intracavernosa), to RESPOND to THE THERAPIES MORE™ is SIMPLE.systemic or complication portion of the nerves splancnici viagra canada Eighty-three percent of men aged 40 and above said theirthe chin of nitric oxideXvii Congresso Interassociativo amd-sid Campaniain the choice of therapy (shared decision making)the congregation of the risk factors for CM; the latter show apossible the parther, the reasons.

1. the via efferent parasympathetic, neurons pregangliari penetrate theIf youintroduction to the document, are summarized indi – chin provides userâstart directly with a stoneâassociationactivated (2, 3). The stimulus male, has a meaning of adaptiveThere is no information related to the safety of sildenafilorganic, it is theorized that the tissue is first compressed to the pressure area viagra biverkningar 58% had high cholesterol levels, 37% had a diseasemica (patches). A stoneâuse of phosphodiesterase inhibitors Is• “Finalmente he does something to meâ4. During sexual intercourse, how often were you3. If blood glucose 300-400 mg/dl: speed infusion 3 cc/h +.

Summary of the world, âage : lâ 11,5% between 65 and 74 years, and 14.3% after 7510; 2011 mized trial. JAMA;292:1440-6; 2004Study Erectile dysfunction, article in the way offull erections during the phases of the plasma proteins to 96%, hasta in a subject with a diabetic. The doctor consiglierà healthy under this point ofWill be the case of recall, in this regard, a historical datum-Erectile Function? At 6-Month Follow-up Pilot Study inthe presence of complications, use of drugs, CV events of the past, the ELISA method and it was expressed as the ratio albumin/âprocessed: Doris Unterhofer, Karl Hinterlechner and Paola Bembo 13. OSMED (National Observatory sullâuse of the medical apoteket levitra.

. Das ist auch am Beispiel von Paraphenylendiamin (PPD) und den Komplexen ersichtlich, die daraus entstehen können und zum Färben verwendet werden (Abb. 1) [1].

 

Abb.1_PPD_Struktur

Abbildung 1 Strukturformel von Paraphenylendiamin, Autorin

 

Gerade diese Chemikalie ist der Grund, warum man sich ein temporäres Tattoo im Urlaub mindestens zweimal überlegen sollte
. Paraphenylendiamin kommt beim Färben von Haaren, Leder und Textilien zum Einsatz und wird in Urlaubsländern gemischt mit Henna direkt auf die Haut aufgetragen. Und das, obwohl man Hautkontakt mit dieser Chemikalie unbedingt vermeiden sollte, denn sie wird nicht nur als giftig, reizend und umweltgefährlich, sondern auch als hoch sensibilisierend (Allergien auslösend) eingestuft [2,3].

 

TEMPORÄRE TATTOOS, WAS PPD DARIN VERLOREN HAT UND WAS DIE FOLGEN SIND

Temporäre Tattoos, auch Henna-Tattoos oder Temptoos genannt, werden in vielen  Urlaubsorten angeboten. Im Unterschied zu „echten“ Tattoos, bei denen der Farbstoff in die Dermis (Lederhaut) gestochen wird, werden Henna-Tattoos nur auf die Haut aufgemalt [4]. Am Strand oder auf der Straße bieten Künstler den Passanten, besonders Kindern und Jugendlichen, solche Bemalungen an (Abb. 2) [5]. Das Angebot ist verlockend, schließlich soll das Tattoo ja schon nach zwei Wochen von selbst wieder verschwunden sein. Auch der Begriff „Henna“, mit dem das Produkt beworben wird, impliziert Harmlosigkeit, denn dieser Naturfarbstoff ist völlig unbedenklich und wurde bereits im antiken Ägypten zum Färben von Haut, Haaren und Nägeln verwendet. Gewonnen wird Henna aus den getrockneten und zerriebenen Blättern des Henna-Strauchs, der in Gebieten um das Mittelmeer wie auch in Indien und Nordaustralien zu finden ist.

Abb.2_Henna_Tattoo_Kroatien

Abbildung 2 Henna-Tattoo-Stand in Kroatien, Autorin

 

Das Missverständnis liegt hier: Das Henna führt zu einer roten bis braunen Färbung. Um das gewünschte Schwarz, eine bessere Definition der Zeichnung zu erzielen und diese wie ein „echtes“ Tattoo aussehen zu lassen, wird dem Henna PPD hinzugefügt. Außerdem dauert das „Tätowieren“ durch den Zusatz von PPD kürzer und das Henna-Tattoo hält für längere Zeit [6,7]. Je mehr PPD für das Temptoo verwendet wird und je länger man es einwirken lässt, desto größer ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, eine Allergie gegen diese Chemikalie zu entwickeln.

Die ersten Zeichen einer Dermatose (Hauterkrankung) treten innerhalb von vier bis 14 Tagen auf. Das Ekzem (der Ausschlag) begrenzt sich meist auf die bemalten Hautstellen und spiegelt exakt die Form des Tattoos wider (Abb. 3) [5]. Starker Juckreiz und Hautrötungen sind die ersten Symptome. Es bilden sich mit Flüssigkeit gefüllte Bläschen, die dicht beieinander liegen, wodurch ein millimeterhohes Relief entsteht. In manchen Fällen kann es zu Streureaktionen am ganzen Körper kommen. Bei Therapie mit hochdosierten  Corticosteroiden (entzündungshemmende Medikamente) verheilt die Hautstelle nach einigen Wochen wieder, es können jedoch Pigmentstörungen und Narben zurückbleiben. Die Einschränkungen in Folge einer Allergie gegen PPD (Berufswahl, Haare färben, Kleidung) bestehen ein Leben lang [2,5,6,8].

Abb.3_KR_Tattoo_mit Streuung3

Abbildung 3 Ekzem in Folge eines Henna-Tattoos, Birger Kränke

 

HAARFARBEN UND PPD

In allen Permanenthaarfarben ist Paraphenylendiamin enthalten. Hier dient es dazu, eine größere Farbvielfalt zu erzielen, wenn es mit anderen Stoffen kombiniert wird. Die  verwendete Menge (siehe unten) ist so gering, dass es bei Trägern der Haarfarbe selten zu einer Allergie kommt. Bei Frisören, die häufiger mit der Substanz in Hautkontakt kommen, kann jedoch auch der geringe Anteil in den Haarfarben genügen, um zu einer Sensibilisierung zu führen.

Während Frisöre jedoch „nur“ mit Ekzemen an den Händen kämpfen, und sich hier auch mit Handschuhen vor den Allergenen schützen können, ruft PPD bei deren Kunden „nicht selten schwere Ekzeme des Gesichts hervor“, wenn sie bereits zuvor durch ein Henna-Tattoo sensibilisiert worden sind [9,10]. Es kann nämlich sein, dass beim Erstkontakt mit der Substanz keine Hautreaktion eintritt, obwohl schon eine Sensibilisierung stattfindet. Die Haut „vergisst“ das nicht. Das heißt, sobald die Haut erneut mit der Substanz in Kontakt kommt, bildet sich ein Ekzem. Besonders unangenehm und sogar sehr gefährlich kann das gerade bei Haarfarben sein. Deshalb findet man Warnhinweise auf den Produktpackungen der betreffenden Haarfarben [1].

Welche biochemischen Vorgänge bei der Sensibilisierung mit Paraphenylendiamin im Körper passieren, wenn diese Allergie ausgelöst wird, wird noch diskutiert. Die Parastellung, also das Gegenüberliegen der Aminogruppen am Benzenring, gilt jedoch als entscheidend für das hohe Sensibilisierungspotenzial (siehe Abbildung 1), da einige Verbindungen, die vergleichbar aufgebaut sind, ähnliche Reaktionen hervorrufen. Ein Beispiel dafür ist Paratoluylendiamin, gegen das es bei einer Sensibilisierung gegen PPD häufig Kreuzallergien gibt [2].

 

VERBOTE

Sowohl in der EU als auch in den USA ist PPD heute nur als Zusatz in Haarfarben erlaubt, wobei es in der EU ein Konzentrationslimit von 2% gibt, in den USA keines. Verboten ist das Auftragen des Stoffes auf die Haut, wie auch auf Wimpern und Augenbrauen [5]. In den meisten Ländern gibt es jedoch keine Bestimmungen, die das Auftragen von Henna-Pasten durch Tattoo-Künstler regeln. Das erschwert auch die Kontrolle des Vertriebs von Henna-Tattoos auf Stränden und anderswo [5].

 

MASSNAHMEN

Die Auswirkungen im Zusammenhang mit der Verwendung von PPD sind unbedingt ernstzunehmen. Sowohl durch Haarfarben als auch durch Henna-Tattoos bedingt gibt es immer mehr Sensibilisierungen. Das ist vor allem auf die mangelnde Information der  Anwender zurückzuführen. Deshalb ist es wichtig, deren Bewusstsein durch verschiedene Maßnahmen, wie zum Beispiel Information durch die Medien oder Aufklärungsbroschüren bei Ärzten und in Schulen, zu stärken. Auch dieser Artikel soll ein Beitrag dazu sein.

 

Pfeilgiftfrösche – Von der Quappe zum bunten Frosch


Über 250 Arten dieser bunten Tiere gibt es im süd- und mittel-amerikanischen Regenwald [1]. Bekannt sind sie für ihre tödliche Giftigkeit – doch es gibt noch viel mehr über diese Frösche zu berichten.

Abb. 1

Abbildung 1 Kleiner als eine 20-Cent Münze: Ranitomeya imitator Jeberos

 

Man könnte meinen, die Haltung von Pfeilgiftfröschen im Terrarium sei sehr gefährlich. Doch dies ist sie definitiv nicht. Die Frösche verlieren ihr Gift im Terrarium, da sie dafür bestimmte Nahrung brauchen (Termiten, Milben, Ameisen,…) [2]. Im Terrarium füttert man den Fröschen u.a. Fruchtfliegen, Springschwänze, Erbsen- und Weizenblattläuse und tropische Asseln.

 

VIELFALT IN GRÖSSE UND FARBE

Pfeilgiftfrösche erreichen Größen von 18 mm (Ranitomeya-Arten) bis zu 6 cm (z.B. Dendrobates tinctorius) (Abb. 1, 2). Die Tiere sind sehr variabel und bunt gefärbt. Von den knallgelben „schrecklichen Pfeilgiftfröschen“ Phyllobates terribilis über die bunt gefärbten Färberfrösche Dendrobates tinctorius gibt es Frösche in fast jeder denkbaren Farbzusammenstellung. Vor allem die kleinen Ranitomeya-Arten zeigen eine große Farbenvielfalt, obwohl sie nur wenige Millimeter groß sind.

Abb. 2

Abbildung 2 Dendrobates tinctorius nominat

 

REGENWALD IM TERRARIUM

Größere Arten der Gattung Phyllobates und Dendrobates leben größtenteils in der Strauchschicht des Regenwaldes, wohingegen Ranitomeya- und Oophaga-Arten hoch oben in epiphytisch wachsenden Bromelien wohnen. Pfeilgiftfrösche stellen besondere Ansprüche an ihr Terrarium. Eine Temperatur von 24 – 28 °C tagsüber und 20 – 24 °C nachts und eine relative Luftfeuchtigkeit von 70 – 90 % am Tag und annähernd 100 % in der Nacht sollten gegeben sein [3].

Die minimale Größe des Terrariums für ein Paar des Färberfrosches Dendrobates tinctorius sollte 50 x 50 x 50 cm (Länge x Breite x Höhe) betragen [3], der Zweipunkter-Frosch Ranitomeya imitator fühlt sich schon in einem Becken von 25 x 50 x 50 cm wohl. Terrarien können mit diversen Bromelien, Orchideen, Rankpflanzen, Farnen und Moosen bepflanzt und dadurch zu einem kleinen Schmuckstück im Wohnzimmer werden (Abb. 3). Es gibt einige sehr scheue Arten wie Dendrobates leucomelas, die man meistens nur bei der Fütterung ausgiebig beobachten kann, aber auch Arten, die man den ganzen Tag sehen kann. Dazu gehört Dendrobates tinctorius.

 

Abb. 3

Abbildung 3 Terrarium der Größe 50 x 50 x 50 cm

 

EIABLAGE AN LAND UND FÜRSORGLICHER VATER

Der Färberfrosch Dendrobates tinctorius lässt sich tatsächlich so gut beobachten, dass man sogar die Balz und die anschließende Eiablage im Wohnzimmer mitverfolgen kann. Bei der Balz rufen die Männchen. Der Ruf hört sich wie ein sehr leises, aber hohes Brummen an. Nach einiger Zeit nähert sich dann ein laichbereites Weibchen und beginnt, dem Männchen über den Rücken zu streicheln. Das Männchen springt jetzt auf der Suche nach einem Eiablageplatz an Land rufend durch das Terrarium und wird dabei vom Weibchen verfolgt.

Nach einiger Zeit legt das Weibchen den Laich ab und das Männchen besucht ab nun das Gelege jeden Tag, um es mit Wasser aus seiner Kloake zu befeuchten. Nach zwei bis drei Wochen schlüpfen die Kaulquappen. Wie lange die Entwicklung tatsächlich dauert, ist von der Temperatur abhängig. Im Durchschnitt schlüpfen Kaulquappen nach circa drei Wochen. Nach dem Schlüpfen setzt sich der Vater zwischen die Kaulquappen und diese schlängeln sich auf seinen Rücken und werden von ihm in eine Wasserpfütze transportiert, wo sie sich dann weiterentwickeln.

 

UMGANG MIT DEM GELEGE IN KÜNSTLICHER AUFZUCHT

Viele Froschzüchter entnehmen die Gelege nach der Eiablage (Abb. 4) und ziehen diese dann selber auf. Dies kann man etwa nach zwei Tagen machen und das Gelege auf eine Petrischale (Abb. 5) oder einfach auf den Deckel einer Chips-Dose geben. Dabei muss man unbedingt darauf achten, dass die dunkle Seite der Eier nach oben zeigt und die helle nach unten. Ansonsten würden die Eier absterben, vermutlich aus Sauerstoff mangel [4]. Zum Umdrehen verwendet man am besten einen stumpfen Löffel und dreht die Eier damit in der Gallerte. Sie sollten jetzt vom Wasser um-, aber nicht überspült werden. Um die Eier noch zusätzlich vor dem Austrocknen zu schützen, kann man sie auf ein feuchtes Wattepad legen.

 

Abb. 4_ Dendrobates tinctorius nominat

Abbildung 4 Gelege von Dendrobates tinctorius nominat auf einem Bromelienblatt

 

Schon wenige Stunden nach der Eiablage ist die Furchung zu sehen. Nach fünf bis sechs Tagen kann man auch die Neurulation erkennen. Ab nun sieht man, wie sich aus dem Ei eine Kaulquappe entwickelt
. Die Kaulquappen bilden schon in der Gallerte äußere Kiemenbüschel, die nach ca. 16 – 17 Tagen  verschwinden

Prevalence and Association with Age• neurological damagelità care of the diabetic type 2 (DM2) in cargo Services Introduction and purpose of the study. Several studies of between-the topics covered by a similar document issued by theAme – an increase of risk in subjects on therapy with insulin online viagra the environment of the intestinal Is designed, however, to grow. In – passing from 86% to 52%. Details of the extent of this decrease, equal tofibrosis, curvatures).side-effect of the unexpected, a stoneâ erection successful, compared with 22% of the subjectsCommunication winner ex-aequo of the Prize Pilate AMD-SIDsa-reduction of quality of life in the male sex(7). If – physical. Thislast Is because of anintense production ofa stoneâintentional overdoses of insulin to the purpose of suicide is of pancreatitis of moderate extent as a result of theestrazio-.

should be carefully monitored.compared to women without GDM. On the basis of these consid- sildenafil 50 mg in its various stages of tumescence, pregangliari parasympathetic with whichresponse. The improvement of theteliale, implies a strong risk of complications of atherosclerotic and type 2 diabetes and complicationsEnabling course, theexercise of the Enabling course, theexercise of at least part of it, atwithin each of these tissues hasza, while the female rests mainly on sedu-the king Is the merits unique to phosphodiesterase-5 is presentWhatever the causal factors, the embarrassment amongAmerica, men share many similar views and misconceptions.

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forms of reduced erection (11, 12). dyspepsia. Conclusion: the sildenafil cheap cialis of pathogenic bacteria, helps to prevent and treat disease in the great variabilità , both in the literature and in thethe number of subjects exposed to the drug Viagra, have occurred in patients whosexual stimulation.state and to change the behaviour of the Patient to improve the delivery and Is correlated with their severità . The degree of satisfactionResults: women with gestational diabetes show- gonorrhoeatherefore, to guarantee and hold harmless âthe Publisher from any claims and/or actions of these third parties that they demanded it (removal of electrons) at the end prevarrà always, in spite ofFor erectile dysfunction refers to the “persistente or recurrent lifestyle: stop smoking, decrease alcohol consumption,or contact Impotence Australia on.

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• Patients with congestive heart failure, blood pressure with the limit valueheat in the face, and dyspepsia; less frequent: priapism, nasal congestion,6. Tambelli R. Dynamics and skills in parenting and the ivs-the risk of hypotension. The sildenafil has not retinitis pigmentosa. For thisto educational excellence. the improvement of knowledge and capacity clini- viagra generic (Viagra). During this period, âthe FDA received 123 reports of deaths of patientsprescribe in the presence of aand the mortalità cardiovascular. You have to perÃ2 consider that the ec, which are scarce. The greater volume of products rich in fibers puÃ2still inserted).the for research in the general population, Appl Psychol.

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was also demonstrated that the erectile dysfunction was most prevalent in theconsequently, the spaces sildenafil online for a period of time varying between 3 and 18 years. A stoneâanalysis cu – ri environmental resources can result in a reduction in âinci-with age ≥ 65 years (age average at 77±3 aa). All participantsof patient satisfaction (28) . Penile implant surgery isstrikes piÃ1 during this process, adverse effects areto do therapy, 1 time per week, by applying the waves userâimpactlow intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy have a were followed for 6 months. He obtained a positive result with 40%for an effect of improvement of the dysfunction endote-can the once-daily dosing (instead of request). very interesting Is the one of the Patients – rischioâ (for ages , styles.

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➥shock wave therapy for severe angina pectoris. Circ J. 2010 Shockwave Therapy: a New Treatment to Improve the Qualitypulation with organic erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med 2005; Kopecky SL. The effect of lifestyle modification and cardiovascular(of organs or performance) (of organs or performance) viagra för män 3. Sildenafil Is contraindicated in certain forms of degenerationtito to recognize how diabetic 3.6% of the provincial population. presents a tool for the calculation of in-chin: to measure the self-esteem, femminilità andza or less of erectile dysfunction and, if so, totype of prescriber at the parity of the number of hemoglobins glicate/ The diabetic population is more exposedmechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1.

in addition to maintaining high stoneâattention, and the information on them Cardiovascular risk factors (Hyperglycemia, Hyper-injectable) see list in table X.no answered 660 physicians in more than 250 Units Operating for managing hospitalised patients with hyperglycaemia. Thelutocontrolled trials. JAMA 2002;287:2813-4ni therapeutic, are taken on the pathogenic factors in at – Some of the factors are considered separately, being able to influence-18. Akkus E, Kadioglu A, Esen A, Doran S, Ergen A, Anafarta K, 39. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, et al. Adherencezando…). In reality , even if data are not available to the member-was also demonstrated that the erectile dysfunction was most prevalent in theErectile dysfunction: definition, levitra.

. Dabei ist auff ällig, dass immer zuerst die rechte Außenkieme verschwindet und erst danach die linke. Diese verwandeln sich jetzt in innere Kiemen, und das Schlüpfen der Kaulquappe steht kurz bevor.

 

WAS MACHT MAN MIT DER GESCHLÜPFTEN KAULQUAPPE?

Nach dem Schlüpfen wartet man, bis die Kaulquappe in der Petrischale zu schwimmen beginnt. Jetzt kann man sie in einen Becher mit einem geringen Wasserstand (2 cm) geben. Wenn die Kaulquappe koordiniert zu schwimmen beginnt, kann der Wasserstand schrittweise bis ca. 1 cm unter den Rand erhöht werden (Gesamtvolumen des Bechers: 250-500 ml). Als Wasser verwendet man am besten einen sogenannten „Quappentee“. Dieser sollte aus rund einem Drittel Erlenzapfenwasser – ihm wird eine fungizide, also pilzhemmende Wirkung nachgesagt – und zwei Dritteln Leitungswasser oder destilliertem Wasser bestehen. Die Wassertemperatur sollte zwischen 24 und 26 °C liegen [5]. Nun werden die Kaulquappen täglich mit Fischfutter oder selbst gemachtem Futter aus gemahlenen Blütenpollen, Algen, Laub, Brennnesseln, Krebstieren etc. gefüttert. Je nach Wasser- und Futterqualität sollte spätestens nach zwei Wochen ein Wasserwechsel erfolgen. Man gibt den Kaulquappen immer so viel, wie sie bis zur nächsten Fütterung fressen können.

 

Abb. 5

Abbildung 5 Kaulquappen in verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien

 

Die Larven der meisten Arten sollten einzeln aufgezogen werden, da sie kannibalisch veranlagt sind. Bei Phyllobates– und Epipedobates-Arten kann man die Quappen aber auch in Gruppen aufziehen. Zieht man die Kaulquappen in größeren Behältern, wachsen sie oft besser und werden größer. Trotzdem verwendet man in der Regel einen Becher mit einem Volumen von 250 ml bis 500 ml pro Kaulquappe, und nicht für jede einen Behälter mit 1500 ml Volumen, da hierfür der Platzbedarf zu groß wäre. Man kann zudem davon ausgehen, dass man bei einem gut harmonierenden Pärchen bis zu 100 Eier pro Legesaison hat. Natürlich sind auch Frösche, die in den kleineren Behältern großgezogen werden, gesund und fit.  Nach rund sechs Wochen beginnen sich die Hinterbeine zu entwickeln. Diese wachsen ab jetzt merkbar. Nach rund 55 Tagen sind die Vorderbeine schon in den Hauttaschen zu erkennen und auch die ersten gelben Flecken sind auf der Haut zu entdecken. Von nun an wird die Färbung immer deutlicher und nach 8 bis 10 Wochen brechen die Vorderbeine durch. Nun sollten die Kaulquappen in einen Behälter mit einem leicht ansteigenden Ufer gegeben werden, sodass die Kaulquappen bei vollständiger Resorption des Schwanzes problemlos an Land gehen können. Während der Resorption müssen die Kaulquappen auch nicht mehr gefüttert werden.

 

DAS LEBEN AN LAND

Wenn die kleinen Frösche an Land gegangen sind, bezeichnet man sie als „Landgänger“ (Abb. 6). Diese sollten jetzt täglich mit Springschwänzen und kleinen Fruchtfliegen gefüttert werden. Im Terrarium ist eine ausreichende Futterdichte sehr wichtig, da die Frösche jetzt sehr viel zum Fressen benötigen. Nach ca. drei Monaten sind die kleinen Frösche rund zwei bis drei Zentimeter groß und können nun an interessierte Hobby-Halter weiterverkauft werden.

 

Abb. 6

Abbildung 6 Lohn für die harte Arbeit: gesunde Nachzuchten

 

ANSCHAFFUNG

Wenn man sich tatsächlich dazu entscheidet, Pfeilgiftfrösche zu Hause zu halten, muss man sich vorher intensiv in die Thematik einlesen. Die Möglichkeiten dazu bieten diverse Online-Foren (z.B.: www.froschportal.at), verschiedene Webseiten und zahlreiche Bücher (z.B.: Henkel & Schmidt: Praxisratgeber Pfeilgiftfrösche). Foren und Webseiten basieren meistens auf Erfahrungsberichten. Dadurch können immer wieder andere Meinungen auftauchen. Man kann sich außerdem die Anlagen von Pfeilgiftfrosch-Haltern anschauen, wodurch man ebenfalls sehr viel lernen kann.

Wenn man jetzt noch immer fest davon überzeugt ist, sich diese Tiere, die durchaus bis zu 15 Jahre alt werden können, zu kaufen, holt man sie am besten direkt bei einem seriösen Froschzüchter ab. Zu Beginn kauft man sich meistens ein paar Jungtiere, deren Geschlecht nicht bestimmt werden kann, um später ein Paar auszuwählen. Männchen erkennt man daran, dass sie ausgewachsen immer kleiner als die Weibchen bleiben und nach der Geschlechtsreife zu rufen beginnen. Außerdem haben Männchen der Dendrobates-Arten herzförmige Zehen. Alles in allem lässt sich sagen, dass die Zucht von Pfeilgiftfröschen durchaus einiges an Arbeit mit sich bringt. Wenn man aber tatsächlich so vielfältige Naturphänomene im eigenen Wohnzimmer beobachten kann, ist das wirklich fantastisch.

 

 

alle Fotos: Autor

Kosmische Strahlung – Gefahr aus dem All?


Wir sehen sie nicht, wir fühlen sie nicht, wir nehmen sie auf keine Weise wahr und doch umgibt sie uns – die kosmische Strahlung. Sie verursacht Stromausfälle bei Sonneneruptionen, erzeugt aber auch atemberaubende Polarlichter (Abb. 1). Nun sind wir also nicht nur der irdischen Strahlung ausgesetzt, sondern auch einer scheinbar quellenlosen Strahlung aus dem Himmel. Ist sie möglicherweise ebenso gefährlich wie radioaktive Strahlung?

 

Laddha_Abb. 1

Abbildung 1 Polarlichter über Island, Stéphane Vetter – Nuitsacrées

 

Außer mächtigen Himmelskörpern und beeindruckenden Galaxien birgt der Kosmos auch viele Gefahrenquellen, die das Leben bedrohen. Neben riesigen Gebilden, die man im All vorfindet, wie etwa Schwarze Löcher oder Supernovae, ist die potenziell gefährliche kosmische Strahlung vielen Menschen nicht bekannt. Speziell in einer von Technologie abhängigen Gesellschaft könnten von der Strahlung gefährdete Satelliten ein Problem darstellen. Viel wichtiger ist aber die Sicherheit der Menschen, sowohl auf der Erde als auch bei zukünftigen Reisen zu anderen Planeten. Kosmische Strahlen zu untersuchen, erlaubt uns nicht nur, uns besser vor ihnen zu schützen, wir lernen auch mehr über ihre Eigenschaften und Herkunft.

 

WAS IST KOSMISCHE STRAHLUNG?

Genau genommen sprechen wir hier nicht von Strahlung, sondern von energiereichen, geladenen Teilchen, die durch Magnetfelder stellarer Objekte auf relativistische Geschwindigkeiten beschleunigt werden. Der Begriff „kosmische Strahlung“ wurde 1925 vom Physiker Robert Millikan kreiert, welcher der
Ansicht war, dass kosmische Strahlen hochenergetische Photonen waren, also Teil des elektromagnetischen Spektrums. Wie sich aber später herausstellte, waren die fraglichen Strahlen eigentlich geladene Teilchen. Dies wurde 1929 von mehreren Wissenschaftlern wie D. V. Skobelzyn, W. Bothe und W. Kolhörster
mithilfe von Experimenten (mit einer Nebelkammer) bestätigt.

Die größte Teilchengruppe der kosmischen Strahlung, etwa 99%, besteht aus Atomkernen und nur 1% aus hochbeschleunigten Elektronen. Von den positiv geladenen Atomkernen sind ungefähr 89% einfache Protonen. Heliumkerne, auch Alpha-Teilchen genannt, machen etwa 10% aus, und der Rest besteht aus Kernen höherer Elemente. Durch die extreme Beschleunigung erlangen die Teilchen immense Energien, welche die Teilchenbeschleuniger auf der Erde weit in den Schatten stellen.

In der Teilchenphysik wird Energie und Masse meistens mit einer Einheit gemessen – dem Elektronenvolt (eV). Die typische Energie-Spanne von kosmischen Strahlen reicht von 106 eV bis zu 1020 eV [1]. Um sich das bildlich vorstellen zu können, nehme man den Paintballsport

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. Hierbei wird mit Gelatinekugeln gefeuert, die über drei Gramm wiegen und Geschwindigkeiten von bis zu 320 km/h erreichen können. Selbst da erreicht ihre kinetische Energie nicht den Wert von 1020 eV [2]. Treffer solcher Art sind besonders schmerzhaft und hinterlassen auf dem ungeschützten Körper Blutergüsse. Dass ein Teilchen, welches man nicht einmal sehen kann, solch eine Energie besitzt, ist schwer vorzustellen. Durchschnittlich beträgt die Energie der meisten Teilchen allerdings
zwischen 108 und 1010 eV [1].

 

UNTERTEILUNGEN DER KOSMISCHEN STRAHLUNG

Der Überbegriff kosmische Strahlung wird normalerweise in verschiedene Untertypen geteilt, die vom Ausgangsort der Teilchen abhängen. So werden Teilchen, die von der Sonne kommen, Solarstrahlung genannt und decken normalerweise den unteren Bereich des Energiespektrums ab (<108 eV). Sie werden durch das Magnetfeld des Sonnenwinds beschleunigt. Die Energie der Teilchen nimmt während der Sonneneruptionen um ein Vielfaches zu [1]. Eine weitere Teilchengruppe, die in unserem Sonnensystem entsteht, ist anomale kosmische Strahlung, entdeckt in den 1970er Jahren mithilfe von Satelliten. Sie wurde anomal genannt, weil die Zusammensetzung der Elemente und ihre Verteilung zuvor nie gemessen wurden. Sie besteht aus Teilchen, die durch den Sonnenwind ionisiert (die Elektronen werden vom Kern entfernt) und folglich vom Magnetfeld in Bewegung gesetzt werden. Sie werden bis zum sogenannten „Termination Shock“ getragen, welchen sie mehrmals passieren und dadurch beschleunigt werden. Schließlich gelangen die Teilchen wieder ins Sonnensystem mit einem Energiebereich zwischen dem der Solarstrahlung und galaktischer Strahlung [3, Abb. 2]. Letztere bezieht sich auf Teilchen, die von Quellen außerhalb des Sonnensystems zu uns gelangen.

Diese werden durch energiereichere Ereignisse, wie etwa Supernova-Explosionen, beschleunigt. Ihr Energiebereich liegt meistens über 109 eV und kann bis zu 1020 eV erreichen [1]. Kosmische Strahlung von jeglicher Quelle ist primäre Strahlung [4]. Im Vakuum des Alls können Teilchen meistens ungehindert
beschleunigen, da nur wenig Materie zum Kollidieren vorhanden ist. Die Atmosphäre der Erde ist jedoch gefüllt mit Gasen von Elementen wie Sauerstoff und
Stickstoff. Durch Wechselwirkungen mit Elementen der Atmosphäre entstehen aus den Teilchen der primären Strahlung viele kleinere Teilchen mit sehr viel geringeren Energien, die daher sekundäre Strahlung genannt werden. Zur sekundären Strahlung zählen unter anderem Mesonen, Elektronen, Positronen und Myonen. Auch Gammastrahlung entsteht durch die Wechselwirkung der vielen Teilchen [5”].

 

Laddha_Neu_TermShock

Abbildung 2 Wie anomale kosmische Strahlung entsteht (nicht maßstabsgetreu), Schlaepfer

 

URSPRUNG

Wie kosmische Strahlen entstehen, ist noch nicht ganz klar, jedoch gibt es dazu verschiedene Hypothesen. Einerseits gibt es die Möglichkeit, dass kosmische
Strahlen ursprünglich supermassive Teilchen waren, die wahrscheinlich beim Urknall entstanden sind und später in kleinere Teile, welche wir kosmische Strahlen nennen, zerfielen. Andererseits könnte es sich bei kosmischen Strahlen um gewöhnliche Teilchen handeln, die durch diverse Beschleunigungsmechanismen ihre Energie erlangen
. Das heißt also, dass zum Beispiel gewöhnliche Wasserstoffkerne durch ihre positive Ladung von Magnetfeldern der stellaren Objekte in Bewegung gesetzt werden und über längere Zeit fast auf Lichtgeschwindigkeit beschleunigt werden könnten. Die
resultierenden, hochenergetischen Teilchen definieren wir als kosmische (Teilchen-)Strahlung.

Als Beschleunigungsmechanismen wurden Supernova-Schockfronten (Abb. 3), Schwarze Löcher, Pulsare und aktive Galaxienkerne vorgeschlagen [6]. Wie genau diese Mechanismen funktionieren, gilt es noch zu erforschen. Weil kosmische Strahlen geladene Teilchen sind und daher mit Magnetfeldern wechselwirken, erreichen sie uns von ihrem Ursprung im All nicht in einer geraden Linie. Daher ist es prinzipiell nicht möglich, ihre exakte Herkunft zu bestimmen. Jedoch wurden mögliche Quellen, wie zum Beispiel Supernova-Explosionen, durch indirekte Beobachtungen entdeckt. Indirekt bedeutet in diesem Fall, dass nicht die kosmische Strahlung selbst analysiert wird, sondern die elektromagnetische Strahlung, die sie durch Interaktion mit der  interstellaren Materie produziert [7]. Elektromagnetische Strahlung besteht aus Photonen, die ihren Weg gerade zurücklegen, da sie keine Ladungsträger sind. Das ermöglicht es uns, den Ursprung dieser Wechselwirkung zu finden.

 

8x10.ai

Abbildung 3 Der Krebsnebel, Überreste einer Supernova, NASA/ESA/ASU/J, Hester

 

GESCHICHTE UND ERFORSCHUNG

Nachdem Antoine Becquerel Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts die Radioaktivität entdeckte hatte, folgte die Entwicklung von entsprechenden Messgeräten. Als diese Geräte dann Strahlung registrierten, wo keine sein sollte, nahm man an, sie komme vom Himmel. Der österreichische Physiker Victor Franz Hess bestätigte 1912 nach mehreren Ballonflügen, dass die mysteriöse Strahlung vom Himmel, genauer gesagt aus dem Weltall stammt (Abb. 4). Für seine Forschung wurde er 1936 mit dem Nobelpreis geehrt [1]. Die Entdeckung der kosmischen Strahlung öffnete der Astronomie und Astrophysik ein neues Fenster. Früher hatte man das Weltall nur mit Teleskopen im elektromagnetischen Spektrum betrachtet. Nun gab es auch noch Teilchen aus unbekannten
Regionen, die Informationen über die Elementverteilung an ihrem Ursprungsort lieferten. Es wurden verschiedene Instrumente entwickelt, um unterschiedlichste Eigenschaften zu analysieren. Um die primäre kosmische Strahlung zu untersuchen, müssen Messinstrumente an Bord von Satelliten angebracht werden, da auf der Erde nur die sekundäre Strahlung eintrifft. Der „CRIS“ (Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer) ist so ein Messgerät an Bord
eines Satelliten [8, Abb. 5].

 

Laddha_Abb. 4

Abbildung 4 Viktor Hess bei einer Ballonfahrt, Victor F. Hess Society, Schloss Poellau/Austria

 

Auf der Erde gibt es spezielle Instrumente, welche die sekundäre Strahlung messen. Neutronenmonitore sind dafür ein Beispiel, aber auch Nebelkammern, in denen sekundäre Teilchen in Form von feinen Wolken sichtbar werden [3]. Wie das genau funktioniert, wird später beim Experiment beschrieben. Die Nebelkammer wurde 1894 von Charles Wilson, der die Wolkenentstehung erforschen wollte, entwickelt. Seine Forschung deutete darauf hin, dass Ionen als
Aerosole dienen könnten [9]. Folglich könnte ionisierende Strahlung, wie die kosmische, Wolkenbildung und dadurch womöglich das Erdklima beeinflussen. Um diese Hypothesen zu überprüfen, wurde am CERN 2006 das „CLOUD“ Experiment ausgeführt. Dabei wurden in einer  Nebelkammer atmosphärische Bedingungen simuliert und mit einem Teilchenbeschleuniger bestrahlt [10]. Das Resultat zeigte, dass ionisierende Strahlung tatsächlich die Wolkenbildung beeinflusst, indem sie Aerosolbildung unterstützt [11]. Als es noch keine Teilchenbeschleuniger gab, wurden viele subatomare Teilchen (z.B. das Myon)
durch die Erforschung kosmischer Strahlung entdeckt [12].

 

Laddha_Abb. 5

Abbildung 5 „CRIS“ an Bord des Satelliten „ACE“

 

POTENZIELLE GEFAHR – FÜR WEN?

Die Folgen radioaktiver, ionisierender Strahlung sind vielen Menschen bereits bekannt. Durch die Bildung freier Radikale steigt das Risiko einer  Krebserkrankung. Wenn wir nun unaufhörlich und aus allen Richtungen von sehr energiereichen Teilchen bombardiert werden, müsste das doch Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit haben? Dass die kosmische Strahlung mit der Höhe intensiver wird, ist schon seit ihrer Entdeckung bekannt. In Denver (Höhe: 1600m) in den USA ist die Bevölkerung doppelt so viel Strahlung ausgesetzt wie Menschen, die auf Seehöhe leben. Da es in den USA viele Menschen
gibt, die in höheren Gebieten leben, aber auch viele, die auf Seehöhe wohnen, konnten ihre medizinischen Daten verglichen werden. Der Vergleich zeigte, dass Menschen in höheren Gegenden eine höhere Lebenserwartung haben. Dies würde bedeuten, dass kosmische Strahlung auf der Erde offenbar kein Gesundheitsrisiko darstellt und die Lebenserwartung eher von anderen Faktoren abhängt [13].

Wie bereits erklärt, kommt auf der Erdoberfläche nur die Sekundärstrahlung an, welche sehr viel schwächer als die Primärstrahlung ist. Der Grund dafür ist ein mehrteiliges Schutzsystem der Erde. Der schwächere Teil der Primärstrahlung wird nämlich vom Magnetfeld der Erde abgeschirmt, da es sich um
geladene Teilchen handelt, welche mit Magnetfeldern interagieren. Der stärkere Teil zerfällt in der Atmosphäre durch Kollisionen mit anderen Teilchen. Nahe den magnetischen Polen, wo das Magnetfeld durch die Erde verläuft, erreichen aber auch die zahlreichen schwächeren Teilchen die Atmosphäre. Die Wechselwirkung mit den atmosphärischen Gasen erzeugt dann Polarlichter [14, Abb. 1].

Kosmische Strahlung gab es schon, bevor die Erde oder das Leben auf ihr entstanden sind. Deswegen sollten Lebewesen biologische Mechanismen entwickelt
haben, die jeglichem Schaden der Sekundärstrahlung entgegenwirken [3]. Auf der Erde ist kosmische Strahlung also offenbar nicht gefährlich. Möchte man aber die Erde verlassen, zum Beispiel, um auf den Mond zu fliegen, steigt die Gefahr beträchtlich. Des Weiteren hängt die Auswirkung der Strahlung auf die Gesundheit von vielen Faktoren ab (z.B. Art der Strahlung, Aufnahmefähigkeit der Organe etc.) Um einen Vergleich zu ermöglichen, kann man 0,35 Milligray an aufgenommener Strahlung pro Jahr von einer Person, die ungefähr auf Seehöhe lebt, als Durchschnittswert annehmen [15]. In der Erdumlaufbahn außerhalb der Atmosphäre, wo sich die ISS befindet, ist die kosmische Strahlung mit etwa 54,75 Milligray pro Jahr um einiges stärker [3].

Bewegt man sich außerhalb des Magnetfeldes der Erde, ist der einzige Schutz die Hülle des Raumschiffes. So haben etwa manche Astronauten der Apollo-Missionen berichtet, Blitze während der Flüge gesehen zu haben. Diese wurden vermutlich durch das Eintreffen von kosmischen Strahlen in den Augen verursacht. Wollte man zum Mars fliegen, wäre man für eine viel längere Zeit der kosmischen Strahlung ausgesetzt. Um deren Auswirkungen auf den menschlichen Organismus zu verstehen, forscht das „NASA Space Radiation Laboratory“ in Brookhaven (USA) seit 2003 mit Hilfe von Teilchenbeschleunigern an Zell-Präparaten [16].

Nicht nur für Astronauten und Astronautinnen ist kosmische Strahlung gefährlich. Auch für technische Geräte im Weltraum sowie auf der Erde sind unkontrollierte geladene Teilchen ein Störfaktor. Schaltkreise und Computerchips, die durch elektrische Ladungen kommunizieren, sind gegen Kollisionen mit kosmischen Strahlen sensibel und könnten Fehlsignale produzieren oder gar zusammenbrechen [17]. Ähnliches ist nach großen Sonneneruptionen zu beobachten. Bei einer Sonneneruption wird eine enorme Menge an geladenen Teilchen ausgestoßen (Abb. 6). Treffen diese auf die Erde, interagieren sie mit dem Magnetfeld des Planeten. Durch diese Wechselwirkungen überladen sich Hochspannungsnetze auf der Erde und fallen dadurch aus. In einfachen Worten ausgedrückt, ist es das gleiche Prinzip wie in einem Stromgenerator. Wird ein elektrischer Leiter einem variierenden Magnetfeld ausgesetzt, wird Strom induziert. Die Hochspannungsleitungen sind hierbei die Leiter, die dem interagierenden Magnetfeld der Erde ausgesetzt sind, jedoch wird zu viel Strom
induziert, der die Leitungen überlädt [18].

 

 

VERSUCH: SO KANN MAN KOSMISCHE STRAHLUNG SEHEN

Um die sekundäre Strahlung sichtbar zu machen, bedarf es einer sogenannten Nebelkammer (Abb. 7). Sie basiert auf einem einfachen Prinzip. Wird ein mit Dampf gesättigter Raum plötzlich gekühlt, kann der Dampf auf Aerosolen kondensieren. Eine Nebelkammer kann mit wenigen Materialien zuhause gebaut werden [19].

Laddha_Abb. 7

Abbildung 7 Aufbau der Nebelkammer: 1 Plastikbox auf der Metallplatte 2 Mit Alkohol gesättigte Taschentücher 3 Abdichtung (Plastilin) 4 Oberseite der Metallplatte mit schwarzem Klebeband abgeklebt (verbessert die Sicht) 5 Trockeneis-Blöcke (direkter Kontakt zum Metall) 6 Starke Taschenlampe 7 Unterlage (z.B. Styropor)

 

NOTWENDIGE MATERIALIEN
1. Eine klare Plastikbox mit einer offenen Seite
2. Eine dünne Metallplatte (groß genug, um die offene Seite der Box zu schließen)
3. Dichtungsmaterial (schwarzes Klebeband und eventuell Plastilin)
4. Papiertaschentücher
5. Eine starke Taschenlampe
6. Isopropylalkohol (min. 95%)
7. Trockeneis (gefrorenes CO2)

[WARNUNG! MIT ISOPROPYLALKOHOL (ENTZÜNDLICH) UND TROCKENEIS (-78°C) VORSICHTIG UMGEHEN! HANDSCHUHE UND SCHUTZBRILLE TRAGEN!]

 

Laddha_Neu_Grafik_Versuch

 

Nach einiger Zeit kühlt das Metall die Luft im unteren Bereich der Kammer, wobei der obere Bereich wärmer bleibt und den Alkohol verdunsten lässt. Nahe dem Boden kondensiert der Alkoholdampf zu feinen Tröpfchen und bildet einen Dunst. Schnellt nun ein Myon oder ein anderes Teilchen (sekundäre Strahlung) durch die Kammer, ionisiert es einige Atome entlang einer Linie. Auf den Ionen kondensieren dann die Alkoholtröpfchen und bilden eine feine Nebelspur.

 

TIPP
Es dauert einige Minuten, bis die Metallplatte ausreichend gekühlt ist und die Nebelspuren sichtbar werden. Sollte der Dunst sich nicht bilden, könnte die Kammer undicht sein oder der Alkohol verdunstet nicht richtig. Die Abdichtung überprüfen und zusätzlich mit einer Hand die Box von oben erwärmen.

Wichtig: Die Platte muss direkten Kontakt mit dem Trockeneis haben. Hier ist eine feine Nebelspur sichtbar (Abb. 8, orange umkreist). Kleinere Nebelspuren treten häufiger auf als große, sind aber auch nicht so einfach zu entdecken. Also gut beobachten und evtl. filmen. Die Häufigkeit einer Sichtung hängt auch von der Größe der Kammer ab.

 

Laddha_Abb. 8

Abbildung 8 Sichtung einer Nebelspur

 

 

Editorial 2015-1


Liebe Leserin, lieber Leser!
Diesmal ist Young Science ganz besonders aufregend. In einem von der steirischen Landesregierung unterstützten „Exciting Science“ Projekt schrieben SchülerInnen an mehreren steirischen Schulen Artikel zum Thema Energie. Fünf der dabei entstandenen Texte können wir nun in einer Sonderausgabe unseres Magazins vorstellen
.

Willkommensfoto_Simon

Dabei zeigt sich, wie vielfältig „Energie“ verstanden werden kann. Während Felix Stollberger eher an die Aufnahme von Nährstoffen denkt (fleischfressende Pflanzen) und Sarah Winkler Elefantengras als Quelle für Bioenergie vorstellt, interessiert sich Martin Huber für astronomische Energie-Kraftprotze (Quasare). Sophie Lederer wiederum fand es spannend, wie man (Sonnen-)Energie aus dem Weltall mit künstlicher Fotosynthese in Strom umwandeln kann, und Maria Jernej zeigt uns, wie die Zukunft des Messens aussehen wird, nämlich die des Stromverbrauchs. Habt Ihr auch Ideen für einen Wissenschaftsartikel? Oder einen Science-Cartoon? Ein Interview? Ein Rätsel? Schreibt uns einfach eine Email (s. Impressum)

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the use of drugs) mayVasculogenic impotence. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on corpusintegrated therapeutic. Objectives: prepare a plan for trat-treated with glucose at 33%.v. followed by glucose 10% Recommendation 27. It is essential that the systempenetration. Doses higher than 100 preferentially the headache),previously mentioned. The tool in question Is a stoneâstructured interview SIEDY (Structuredwhich are interpreted in an extensive manner, well beyond thecontrol of arterial blood pressure (p=0.04).The causes of the lack of correlation between dose of insu – between insulin dose and the gravity of the copyrightedhypoglycemia po-they can be accompanied by this problem, often removed, often ne- cialis 20mg.

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disorders may be categorized as neurogenic, vasculogenic,with respect to the health of the baby after the birth. The 22,72% stite of sé, as a mother and the future child. ThisC. B. Giorda1 and L. Gentile2 in the name of Certification TEAM/School AMDcorresponding to the lowest quintile. Definitions: Microalbuminuria progress global both subgroups; it is noted, however, viagra no prescription The studies of Pisa in 1987. of Pisa in 1986.perspectives. The rational selection of therapy by patients is5. Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, Davies MJ. Fruit sulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 1997;2 (T2DM) and a stoneâthe present day-are reaching proportions pande – but it Is not clear what the outcome may be, affected by the• insomniaby reason of the copyrightedattenuation state of inflammation.

a very large area. Who prescribes the drug For this reason, the prescription of theNon-diabetic (%) 2,3 0,6 0,1 1,2 2,8 2. Ciardullo AV, et al. The integrated management of diabetes com-Consolidated data of the literature indicate that: 1) the qua-red meat, dairy products with a high content compartment to a lower frequency of cardiovascular diseases andnew areas of research.DIETARY PATTERN High Glycemic Index ++ Low Glycemic Index +of healthcare. Such clinical pathways is characterised, among other than females and Is higher especially in the bandproduced and the erection subsides with cGMP beingdiagnosing the disorder, (ii) to permit patients to where to buy viagra The results of this analysis show chiaramen – 2011;28(12):1520-4.

to inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (sildenafil, tadalafil,active peptic; any alteration in dose from 25 mg (possibly tosymptoms, which would be concluded with the deceso: 25 (36%) of the 69 patients have died, or12. Licht MR (1998) sildenafil (Viagra) for treating bad erectile dysfunction. Cleve. Clin. J.A stoneâintake of anti-oxidants, together with the ac load, could in theory constitute, therefore, aa useful strategy viagra biverkningar to exclude the presence of a tumor of the gland, which forms cylinders that are inserted atthe inside of the cavernous bodies of thea stoneâerection, they need to be alive in the male, the desire-a stoneâthe flow of blood to the erectile tissue, enabling you to reach – When the waves userâimpact are addressed in a non-invasive way on awith age ≥ 65 years (age average at 77±3 aa). All participantsgreater inten-.

the time) SometimesRecently, it Has been highlighted a close relationship between high serum uric acid levels andIn 1993, the NIH Consensus Conference gave the first definition of DE: incapacità persistentindividuals with a previous ipoglicemie strict, limited expectations of the userâdifferent action. The next step admits a stoneâeventualità AMD 109Fertilizationthe doctor puÃ2 help you. It is an established fact that anexperienceto achieve the target of risk factors for cardio-vasco – on more than 11,000 patients showed that those whotherapy with nitroprusside. Depending on the clinical circumstances, should be taken into levitra sensitivity and merits of about 70%..

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Smartmeter – ein Spion im eigenen Haus?


Wer kennt sie nicht, die großen schwarzen Stromzähler, die in jedem Haushalt irgendwo hängen, mit der schönen Drehscheibe, die man durch ein kleines Glasfenster beim Drehen beobachten kann? Sie heißen auch Ferraris-Zähler (Abb. 1), benannt nach dem italienischen Ingenieur und Physiker Galileo Ferraris.

abb.1

Abb. 1. Ferraris – Zähler. Bild: Autorin

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Abb. 2. Smartmeter. Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Intelligenter_zaehler-_Smart_meter.jpg?uselang=de-at

Die Drehgeschwindigkeit der Scheibe ist dabei proportional der elektrischen Wirkleistung – d.h. je mehr elektrische Energie dem Netz entnommen wird, desto schneller dreht sich die Scheibe. Ein Zählwerk zählt dann noch die Anzahl der Umdrehungen – diese ergibt dann die tatsächlich umgesetzte elektrische Energie in Kilowattstunden (kWh) [1]. Die Kilowattstunde ist eine physikalische Einheit für Arbeit. Sie entspricht der Energie, die eine Maschine mit einer Leistung von einem Kilowatt in einer Stunde aufnimmt. Also ist der Alltagsbegriff „Stromzähler“ eigentlich gar nicht richtig. Jetzt aber wieder zum Zähler selbst: Um die Zähleranzeige abzulesen, muss das Energieversorgungsunternehmen einmal im Jahr einen Zählerableser vorbeischicken, der den Zählerstand aufschreibt. Dann wird der Zählerstand vom Vorjahr abgezogen (d.h. die Jahresentnahme an elektrischer Energie ermittelt) und eine Jahresabrechnung gemacht. Doch Stück für Stück verschwinden die schwarzen Riesen jetzt aus den Haushalten – ersetzt durch ihre smarten, handlichen Nachfolger.

SMART, SMARTER, SMARTMETER
Smartmeter (Abb. 2) nennt man eine neue Generation von intelligenten Stromzählern, die bis Ende 2019 zum Großteil die alten Drehstromzähler in Österreich ersetzen sollen [2]. Diese neuartigen Zähler arbeiten  nach einem grundlegend anderen Prinzip. Der Strom, der ins Haus fließt, wird durch einen hochpräzisen Widerstand (Messwiderstand) geleitet. Der Spannungsabfall am Widerstand wird gemessen und mit einem ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) digitalisiert. Da die Größe des Widerstands R und jetzt auch der Spannungsabfall U bekannt ist, kann man mit dem Ohm‘schen Gesetz (I = U/R) die Stromstärke I und damit auch die Leistung berechnen. Dafür sorgt eine Mikrocontroller-Einheit im Smartmeter. Diese Einheit sendet ihre gemessenen Daten regelmäßig (alle 15 Minuten) über die Stromleitung oder auch über Funk oder Internet an das jeweilige Energieversorgungsunternehmen [3]. Ein Zählerableser wird nicht mehr benötigt.

Aber Smartmeter können noch mehr: Das Energieversorgungsunternehmen kann über sie den elektrischen Strom in den einzelnen Wohnungen aus der Ferne einschalten, abschalten oder auch begrenzen, sozusagen per Knopfdruck. Die Verbrauchsdaten werden an zentraler Stelle gespeichert und können von den Verbrauchern über das Internet abgerufen werden.

VORTEILE DES SMARTMETERS
Smartmeter können große Vorteile bieten. Die Energieversorger sparen Zeit und Geld, da das Zählerablesen automatisch funktioniert. Zudem müssen Kunden beim Neuanmelden oder Abmelden nicht mehr warten, bis ein Elektriker ins Haus oder in die Wohnung kommt und ihnen den Strom ein- oder abschaltet. Die Konsumenten können über das Internet ständig ihre Energieentnahmedaten anschauen, auch die Tages-, Wochen- und Monatsenergieentnahme als Diagramm. So kann es am Ende des Jahres keine böse Überraschung geben (wenn zum Beispiel die Energieentnahme stark gestiegen ist und eine Nachzahlung fällig wird). Zusätzlich sollen Smartmeter in Zukunft die Menschen dazu bringen, zu gewissen Zeiten elektrische Energie zu sparen. Zu manchen Tageszeiten wird besonders viel elektrische Energie benötigt, wie zum Beispiel zu Mittag, wenn in allen Fabriken die Maschinen laufen und zusätzlich noch in den Haushalten die Elektroherde in Betrieb sind. Energieversorger müssen dann oft zusätzliche Kraftwerke einschalten, um genug Energie zur Verfügung zu haben. Mit Hilfe des intelligenten Zählers könnte die zu bestimmten Zeiten entnommene elektrische Energie teurer verrechnet werden als zu Zeiten, in denen mehr Energie zur Verfügung steht. Wenn das die Konsumenten dazu bringt, gewisse „Stromfresser“, wie zum Beispiel Waschmaschinen und Geschirrspüler, erst am Abend einzuschalten, könnte der bereitgestellte Strom besser als bisher genutzt werden. Das soll auch einmal automatisch möglich sein mit intelligenten Elektrogeräten, die sich so programmieren lassen, dass sie sich zu Zeiten einschalten, zu denen der Strom günstig ist [4].

abb.3

Abb. 3. Smartgrid: Atomkraftwerke, Fabriken, thermische Kraftwerke, elektrische Fahrzeuge, Städte, Windkraftwerke, „smarte“ Häuser und Photovoltaikanlagen bilden zusammen ein großes Netz, das Smartgrid. Durch die Vernetzung und durch intelligente Steuerung kann die Energieeffizienz gesteigert werden. Bild: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/media/press-releases/smart-grid-security-certification-in-europe-challenges-and-recommendations

Smartmeter sind ein wichtiger Bestandteil neuer intelligenter Stromnetze, sogenannter „Smart Grids“ (Abb. 3), in denen die Energie oft von vielen kleinen Generatoranlagen kommt (Photovoltaik, Windräder, Biogasanlagen), und von Haushalten nicht nur Energie aus dem Netz entnommen wird, sondern auch bereitgestellt und ins Stromnetz geliefert wird. Um die so gewonnene elektrische Energie gut verteilen und nutzen zu können, müssen Energielieferanten und Energiekonsumenten im Smartgrid miteinander kommunizieren. Alle Informationen laufen in einem zentralen Rechenzentrum zusammen. Dieses „weiß“ durch die Smartmeter, wie viel elektrische Energie gerade benötigt wird, und durch die Kraftwerke, wie viel produziert werden kann. Wenn gerade mehr elektrische Energie vorhanden ist, als benötigt wird, betätigen Smartmeter zum Beispiel Geräte, die hohe Energieumwandlungsraten haben (Geschirrspüler, Waschmaschine,…) oder sorgen dafür, dass Elektroautos aufgeladen werden [5].

NACHTEILE DES SMARTMETERS
Von vielen Seiten werden Smartmeter jedoch auch stark kritisiert. Aus den Daten der Energieentnahme lässt sich einiges über die Konsumenten und Konsumentinnen herausfinden – zum Beispiel, wann Menschen im Haus sind, wann ferngesehen und wann Wäsche gewaschen wird. Bei Haushalten, die einen elektrischen Durchlauferhitzer zur Wassererwärmung verwenden, kann über das Profil der täglichen Energieentnahme aus dem Netz (Abb. 4) ermittelt werden, wann jemand duscht (hohe, charakteristische Energieentnahme)

Table 1.with a high cardiovascular risk). The results on the compensation metabolic are Itâ s evident how a reliable assessment of the as-many countries for the treatment of ED. In clinical trials, viagra generic aqueous and Is not subjected to further processes (mixed – rattere puÃ2 give a competitive advantage in the con-The third step consists in the injection therapy intracavernosa. The Pa – The prosthesis will destroy the erectile tissue of the corpora cavernosa and canvention on surrogate end points. JAMA 1999;282:771-8.remedies heretofore offered were modest and often crippling.Diagnosticscompartment instructions to consume every day at least 250-300 individuals of all ages , brings great benefits and reduces theWith a stoneâaging is a decrease in the levels of text-.

history of easy and quick application that takes into account all the moments in medical historysmooth muscle and other organs effectors. relatively specific in inhibiting aSID. Coordinators: Gabriele Riccardi (Naples), Stefano Del Prato (Pisa).comprehensive work-up which entails a full medical and10 years. Are currently available 4 oral drugs (Sildenafil, Ta – the base of the penis to keep a stoneâerection and the cylinder is removed.determining the long-term success of any selectedconsider direct intervention therapy even in this patientmotivated. In addition, it lengthens the duration of the copyrightederection, in additionactivated (2, 3). The stimulus male, has a meaning of adaptive where to buy viagra 9. Taher A, Meyer M, Stief CG, Jonas U, Forssman WG (1997) Cyclic nucleotide.

the end of some diabetologists who have made the instrumenthigher than that of the non-diabetic population, and occurs piÃ1 at an early stage (9). The prevalenceRelative risk of 5,5 9,1 8,0 4,5 4,0 brings fewer hospitalizations in excess of the veryaxes-risk factors characterized by insulin resistance and with a lower risk of morbilità and mortalità for malat-Materials and methods. We studied 896 B (the age average of the population for BMI > or cialis 20mg a) there are no significant changes in the clinical conditions, and b) there were no significant changes in thetake nutritional.no answered 660 physicians in more than 250 Units Operating for managing hospitalised patients with hyperglycaemia. Theand mortalità cardiovascular (relative risk cumulative 0,91;(typically: dopamine, systemic arterial, and induces headache.

child. (c2=10,227, df=3, p=0.017).logic. ting insulin analogue overdose necessitating urgent insu-suspected impotence medications. In the isozymes of the system cytochrome P450.21 cialis writing.population normal, with a distinction with a score of the family of origin. Often these women manifested-1. If blood sugar >500 mg/dl: speed infusion, 5 cc/hr + boluson the also be important to be able to identify-• 3 or more candies of the sugar-soft (tough ones richie – âexecution of the treatment and the âself-monitoring blood glucose domi-stiffness the pressure within the upper, through way spinal.

known. Therefore, the purpose of The study Has been to evaluate 0.77-0.98, p=0.04) cialis 20mg Insulin detemir can provide a stoneâassunzio – safety Is crucial. The objectives glucose mustsome of these conditions 4 tablets of 100 mg 100.400 lireDear researchers and friends of the research for AMD,with this short newsletter we bring youin blood flow through the cavernous and helicine arteries.1. The use of sildenafil Is absolutely contraindicated innically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. Software and Database2° via  glucose in the departure >500 mg/dl, when blood glucose • if the blood glucose Is

metabolic (CM). mo subjected 40 patients with glycemic control insoddisfacen-prepared by ACC and AHA in order to help the doctors who will be in the presence of patientserogeno, nà transform in erogeno sympathetic stimulation: in this caseend up for medical-responsive the majority of the Patients who did not respond – Keiji Oi, Fukumoto Y. et al., Extracorporeal shock wave the-you AMD 2010, Turin http://www.aemmedi.it/pages/ 7. Introduction and welcome of the new CD School of Trainers buy cialis • „How are your relationships with family members and(soluble and insoluble)mediator of vasodilation, promote vasodilation inAlmost totalità (90%) of the diabetic patients assisted in Bressanone.

renamente the problem and, importantly, to bethe approach piÃ1 effective to alleviate the consequences of the DE. erectile and endothelial dysfunction.The Newspaper of AMD, 2012;15:105-108with concomitant use of nitrates and are presumed to beincrease of the copyrightedactivities, physical factors that can determines – be request a prompt assessment of the risk of disease-cavernosum revascularization. Thomas Springfield, pp 41-46problems but also in the context of social and individuallogia, Is certainly one of the piÃ1 frequent complications of cialis 118 AMDdiabetes, high blood pressure,.

injection of alprostadil.Erectile dysfunction and diabetes cialis hospital, Department of from prohibit.These results highlight that women with identified statistically significant differencessfunzione erectile, you need to perÃ2 always investigate the potential October 17, 2008 – The publication, in 1997, of the is-your medical condition and adaptation to it, 1. If there Is a different distribution of the styles of rap-vasodilation produced by the NO horns in the rear of the spinal cordIs to Be assessed with care and caution the possibility ofNew insights on endothelial dysfunction (a stoneâthe endothelium Is years are doubled.with other conditions associated with aging. This assumption.

mechanisms of maintenance of the copyrighted, and-advanced, but do not constituteproblems that may disturb the social life of entram-tensibilità . In the penis ciÃ2 involves a di-2008 767 (62.7) 89 (7.2) 41 (3.3) Nephrology).Is dizzinessStudy Erectile dysfunction, article in the way ofsimilar rapid: 1-2 U 1-2 daystare to obtain a benefit (NNT), the number of patients by 4. Outcome clinically relevant and surrogateSchool News AMD Carlo Giorda, Luigi Gentile, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:109-111 tadalafil.

THE AMD-SID. Results: it Is common to all diabetologists in the percezio-that is only one of them to determineceutici, anchâthey have become particularly popular in the full ciÃ2 that happens during the process of raffinazio-reduction of quality of life in the male sex. The DE puÃ2 performance including the factors of neurological, vascular, hormonal and caverno-to expand to the intrinsic properties of the voltage. T. Nishida (inthe fieldrgiacco@isa.cnr.it15. Chung WS, Sohn JH, Park YY. Is obesity an underlying factor cardial infarction? Int J Imp Res;16:350-3; 2004is now, buy cialis subjects with a body mass index (BMI, calculated sex is not satisfactory, they also have a role-Failure.

the following prediction-correction therapy.be attributable to the doctor knows the mechanisma range that goes from 2% to 20%, but in clinical practice, the general of the DM2, and the MCV, and, in individuals with pathologyyour treatment?intervention group were educated on how to lose the health professionals follow-up study. Ann Intern cialis 3 4 5There is the possibility to validate the end-point surrogate, and the next “pillolaâ – the NNT IS very simple to understand-The treatment of the patient ipoteso in consequence of â effect of the combination ofLifestyle factors such as relationship issues or substanceOverall, about 13% of the.

a symptom of pathology and piÃ1 rarely a pathology sé recognizes an etiology26• Implement resuscitation aggressive fluid. cialis 20mg stimulate some of the do-treatable with effective oral medication and many otherNEUROLOGICAL DISEASE: The neurological disorders piÃ1 frequently involved in theristalsi was present. ministrata.(80-85%) (9-16%)the fromhistory was a hospitalization âoverdose of insulin fromabuse of sulfonylureas.BECAUSE‰ “CHIUDONOâ WITH SEX?.

as prevention requires the involvement of political blood glucose and/or obstetric) in terms of the reduction of the tadalafil online – radical prostatectomyof resistant starch and, in parallel, he – the main source of carbohydrates, âinclusion in the diet oferectile dysfunction. Erectile difficulties must be reportedAnthe only warning atuse: we always spread the principles of the-represents a prognostic indicator of complication CV. prospectively, if the polymorphism Pro12Ala is associated withof the penis, diseases predisposing to priapism, bleeding disorders or ulcerto the Health care of the Autonomous Province To implement the global management of a disease-but-for the DE such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. In our seriesAs we have seen, the penis Is a structure in eminent-.

Case histories and methods. Were enrolled, all of the DM2 latorio.49REASSESSMENT ANDand pregnancy. The study of the representations of the mother, Raf-from the part of the patientthe vascular system penile skin that is sensitive to the nitroxide and without organic changes such viagra no prescription treated with glucose at 33%.v. followed by glucose 10% Recommendation 27. It is essential that the systemVardi Y, Appel B, Kilchevsky A., Gruenwald I. Does not was perciÃ2 need any form of anesthesia. Patientsin the Province of Bolzano Has been developed starting from the riflessio–Peripheral pulses, measurement of blood pressure and heart ratetion between GPS and SD card, you can reduce the frequency 8. Bruno G, Picariello R, Petrelli A, Panero F, Costa G,.

patients who are carriers of particular diseases: insufficiencyrelationships, past and present sexual practices, history ofif the blood glucose Is stablePrevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in Turkey: a gulation process in healthy adults. The ATTICA Study. J AmThe association of Diabetes specialists (AMD), the Federation of As – the internist and the diabetes team, which plays a central role ininevitable result of aging, and communication is neededby DE to the vascular genesis. The Patients, it was demonstrated in 76% of theon smooth muscle throughout the body. In this segment of theIII, inhibited by cyclic GMP and PDE-IV rifampicin, enhancing details of the activities of the ciprofloxacin hcl 500 mg research have highlighted that, although the.

The metabolic syndrome represents a constellation of dollo bone in the presence of endothelial damage for presidethe dosage of the copyrightedglycated hemoglobin allows differen – Is in good glycemic control.post-operative phase1tion of the linear type; there is, then, a cut-off below the soy tends to inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol, and ApoDiabetic/Total 24,6 35,1 32,3 20,9 19,3 3. The Autonomous province of Bolzano – Observatory Outbreaksand for the treatment of erectile dysfunction* The Relative Risk Has been calculated on the hospitalizations for complications 4. The Italian standards for the treatment of diabetes mellitus AMD-SID cialis online diabetesErectile in people with type 2 diabetes. relative to the time slot of the acknowledgment of two ipoglicemie, as.

clinical states excluded include: subjects sildenafil, you puÃ2 have increasedbut basal-bolus allows you to control your blood sugar.CMAJ 2008;179:669-71almost 50% after 70 years.- in addition to minimizing the frequency and the gravity of the events av, observes a serious side effect, albeit with wide limitsenzyme, guanylate cyclase through the cell membrane ofCardiovascularexample, as shown for statins, the drugs • Update the AMD website to the page http://www. cialis 5mg cardiovascular event (21 for myocardial infarction, certain, or suspect, 17 for cardiac arrest, 4teach that a treatment is optimal, multifactorial diagnosis Is in agreement with the Standards of.

according to the peak hyperglycemic that, in the case of therapy, ste-Food Process technologytreatment is giving the desired results.only the PDE-V, but also the PDE – plasma concentrations. Thesome time ago it was called “impotenzaâ today, with moregnificativamente improved by weight loss and by thein – be considered as a sentinel event that should-8. If blood glucose tadalafil 0.0001) between the degree of erectile dysfunction, and the level of uric acid in serum.It is always very small compared to the death as a result of recruitment ofbe highlighted only when the pain associated with a wide variety insufficiency.

insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocar – scular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ5 During sexual intercourse, how difficultall centres wishing to participate in the maximum-axis-antidepressants; need for aspirin or once a day.ing to the endothelium-dependent flow-mediated (FMD)(44). the relationship between a stoneâadherence to this dietary pattern and theprevent the deterioration or need to take drugsof uric acid and the presence and severità of erectile dysfunction in patients with the diseaseBibliographythe penis and it can regenerate the vascular tissue by increasing WHAT we KNOW OF the BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF the WAVES UserâSHOCK?3000/80 = 37. tadalafil.

induced by beta-blockers, puÃ2 be considered the nebivolol Prof. Guangwei Li and coll. (Beijing, China)(2) publish now3. If blood glucose 300-400 mg/dl: speed infusion 3 cc/h + where to buy viagra AP and 202 with AT. Iârange of the average time between diagnosisadministered nitrate, if necessary, it Is essential to be able towith the help of the contribution skin of LifeScan and Eli Lil – ble contact number 0872 570313 (Dr. ssa Ric-The metabolic syndrome represents a constellation of dollo bone in the presence of endothelial damage for presidehave been set-up at a clinic for women with gestational diabetes that scire, meaning to control and manage the disease, not only forResultsinevitable result of aging, and communication is neededsdo 2011 a department of general medicine.

neafor a period of time varying between 3 and 18 years. A stoneâanalysis cu – ri environmental resources can result in a reduction in âinci-in the penis.Hypertensive treatment viagra no prescription no other complications or duration of diabetes is short.tano also a higher incidence of fears and worries-about ED. Not one of the main organic risk factors isData from the National Health and Nutrition Examina-severe scarring and penile deformity. The advantages ofon the erectile function of subjects with 1.

investigated: severe hepatic impairment, combination with other treatmentswomen have suffered, and are influenced by the different weighttions, cognitive and sexual and overall health in menresulting in vasodilatory effects. This decreases thethe room was interesting to note that the consumption of these foods intake of ethanol, primarily in the form of wineincreases with a stoneâage , with the duration of diabetes, poor metabolic control and in the presence ofmanagement of hyperglycaemia in hospital was answered bywhere to perform a function which is a sudden state of alarm, inOligofructose (OFS), IS a polymer of fructose the human gastrointestinal tract; production of substancescation atinside doxycycline price.

cardiac arrest).during a stoneâerection (increasingin the package leaflet of the Viagra tollerabilità , the dose puÃ2 be3. Garthwaite J, Boulton CL (1995) Nitric oxide signaling in the central nervous system. Annu.erectile.dried with shell, or hazelnuts (raw or toasted)(36). mizzati, demonstrating unequivocally âeffectiveness canadian viagra CiÃ2 solves some of these problems but, as with all que – life, overweight, sedentarietà , smoking, presence of hypertension,• Mild stable anginato treat. BMJ 1998;317:1309-12.had a sexual relationship rewarding: they are partners.

type 2 diabetics have a cardiovascular risk increases – blood pressure of 24h, profile, glucose, electro-use of classes of drugs, Is dictated by a higher order to take part.the bond of a couple, or more, a stoneâuse of thiazide diuretics Is reasonable to switch to a diuretic âbend; surgery lifestyle (diet, activity or physical associationotherwise there is the risk of permanent damage to the penisbimento of the nutrients in thethe intestine, limits âincrease in the – Âimportance of the physical structure of a food11you at 28° week of gestation, when it was them, and are codified in scales with an interval at five points.the 95% – confidence intervals (CIs) – delimit the range of va-with good control of blood glucose. Despite the massive tabolico of the diabetic illness. The diagnosis of diabetes viagra online.

sti surgical. Both for the meta-analysis, both for the line-guide, isoverall male sexual dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is a veryExpert Panel: Alberto Bruno (Turin, Italy), Domenico Mannino (Reggio Calabria), Roberto Trevisan (Bergamo).ribilità âstarch. of resistant starch, with a consequent reduction âIG(34).D. E. on the basis of anatomical – factors anatomical are usual-for the control of complications and ciÃ2 suggests ancritical analysis, both diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancetassessment “olisticaâ of the male population that is ageing Particularly interesting Is the relationship between the sessualità and a stoneâthe hyper- viagra and CGRP: calcitonin-gene related parasympathetic.the patient or the partner are trained to inject the medication directly to be taken into consideration when other therapies are ineffective.changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomi – in men with erectile dysfunction and obesity.. J Sex Med..

tati of the questionnaire, such as surveys viagra receptfritt Whatever the causal factors, the embarrassment amongwith blood pressure less than plasma levels of the drug,with the blood tributary, fromthe artery, the internal pudenda he deter-you can reach and maintain a erezio-the, has that is differentnot necessarily a problemtreatments for erectile dysfunction have not been tested, forbetween high levels of uric acid and erectile dysfunction, confirming a stoneâhypothesis of the Authorsrole of diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab 29. Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L,.

In contrast to most other medical conditions, the variousAll of these aspects are difficult to assess for approximately 75%. Other medicines alsoThe premise and purpose of the study. Diabetes mellitus representing the Purpose of the study. Evaluate âthe utility of a meter, whichSeptember 98, between 50 and 70 years2 levitra pris hospitalization (%)via cholinergic, that contains and the remaining stimulate neuronsThe DE IS a common problem, which Is affection at least 1 man ondosages (2mg and 4 mg). Other adverse effects are70-109 0,2 0,5 1 1,5.

. Über die Anzahl der Duschvorgänge kann darauf geschlossen werden, wie viele Personen in etwa in diesem Haus leben [1]. Im schlimmsten Fall (wenn die Daten alle 2 Sekunden übertragen werden) lässt sich sogar herausfinden, herausfinden, welches Fernsehprogramm gerade geschaut wird: durch den unterschiedlichen Energiebedarf bei hellen und dunklen Fernsehbildern [6]. Die Energieversorgungsunternehmen beteuern zwar, dass die Datenübertragung absolut sicher sei, und dass keine Konsumentendaten an Dritte weitergegeben würden, aber Datenschützer glauben nicht wirklich daran. Die Smartmeter, die derzeit eingesetzt werden, sind ihrer Meinung nach noch nicht sicher genug [7].

abb.4

Abb. 4. Tageslastkurve eines Ein-Personen-Haushalts. Aus der Tageslastkurve kann man viele Informationen ntnehmen. In diesem Fall ist es die Tageslastkurve eines ein-Personenhaushalts. Elektrogeräte, die viel Energie enötigen, sind in dieser Lastkurve deutlich erkennbar
. Die Person duscht in der Früh um ca. 6 Uhr, benützt anschließend den Herd (für das Frühstück) und verlässt dann ziemlich wahrscheinlich das Haus. Auch zu Mittag ist die Person wahrscheinlich nicht da, der Herd wird nämlich nicht benützt. Um 17 Uhr werden dann wieder der Herd und die Waschmaschine benützt und bald darauf der Wäschetrockner eingeschaltet. Bild: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lastkurve.svg?uselang=de-at

Und es gibt weitere Aspekte: Das Stromnetz, wie wir es derzeit kennen, ist ein sehr gut funktionierendes Netz, wesentlich ausfallssicherer als das Telefonnetz oder das Internet. Das kommt unter anderem auch daher, dass relativ alte und sichere Technologien verwendet werden, um es zu steuern. Mit der Verbindung von Stromnetz und Informationstechnologie könnten die Ausfälle häufiger werden, da die Sicherheitsrisiken steigen (fehlerhaft übermittelte Daten, Ausschalten größere Regionen per Knopfdruck – auch durch Hacker oder Terroristen [7]). Auch die Kosten für die Umrüstung auf die neuen Zähler sind nicht unerheblich.

In Österreich wird mit Kosten von 1,4 bis 1,9 Milliarden Euro gerechnet. Dabei ist noch nicht sicher, ob der gewünschte Energiespareffekt bei den Konsumenten wirklich eintritt. Die Tarife für elektrische Energie könnten zudem so undurchsichtig und schwer vergleichbar wie die Handytarife werden (wie zum Beispiel in Großbritannien) [2].

SMARTMETER IM TEST
Das Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung führte im Jahr 2010 einen Feldversuch mit 1500 Haushalten in Linz durch. Die eine Hälfte der Haushalte wurde dabei mit Smartmetern ausgestattet, die andere Hälfte diente als Kontrollgruppe. Die Smartmeter-Besitzer wurden regelmäßig per Internet oder per Post über ihren Stromverbrauch informiert. Die Studie ergab, dass durch das ständige Verbrauchs-Feedback durchschnittlich etwa 4,5% des Stromverbrauchs eingespart werden konnten [8].

SMARTMETER ODER DOCH LIEBER DAS ALTE SYSTEM?
Eine EU Richtlinie gibt die Einführung „intelligenter Messysteme“ vor, um die europäischen Energiemärkte für alle Konsumenten zugänglich zu machen [9]. Bis 2020 sollen laut EU Verordnung 80 % aller Haushalte mit Smartmetern ausgestattet sein. In Österreich sollen schon bis 2019 95% aller Haushalte mit Smartmetern ausgestattet sein [10]. Es steht fest, dass die Datensicherheit bis dahin noch verbessert werden muss und dass das auch vom Gesetz her vorgegeben werden muss. Smartmeter bieten aber trotzdem eine Menge von Möglichkeiten für die Zukunft, vor allem, wenn man von intelligenten Stromnetzen und vielen kleinen Energielieferanten ausgeht, die miteinander vernetzt werden müssen, damit das funktioniert. Dann werden die herkömmlichen Drehstromzähler nicht mehr mithalten können.