Issues

Editorial 2019

 

Prof. Dr. Uwe K. Simon

Fragen wie diese sind auch von WissenschaftlerInnen nicht immer leicht zu beantworten. Ja, manchmal gibt es sogar heftige Kontroversen zu solchen Fragen und verschiedene, einander widersprechende Positionen und Theorien. „Streit“ ist in der Wissenschaft aber nicht selten ein Motor für Erkenntnisfortschritt. Kontroversen zu strittigen Fragen lassen oft neues Wissen entstehen. Wissenschaftliche Texte präsentieren ebenfalls nicht nur gesichertes Wissen, sondern diskutieren auch ungeklärte Fragen. Genau das geschieht in den Artikeln dieser Ausgabe. Sie sind mehrheitlich aus einem Sparkling-Science Projekt hervorgegangen, das an der Universität Graz (Fachdidaktikzentrum GEWI) in Zusammenarbeit mit mehreren Grazer Schulen durchgeführt wurde. In diesem Forschungsprojekt haben sich die jungen AutorInnen im Unterricht und im Rahmen einer Summerschool an der Universität mit ungeklärten Fragen in der Naturwissenschaft beschäftigt.
So schreiben Sandra Hirner und Sandra Salama (BRG Dreihackengasse, Graz) zu Homöopathie, während Lukas Ullrich, Emil Götz und Pascal Fina (BRG Keplerstraße, Graz) der Frage nach dem Ursprung des Lebens auf der Erde nachgehen. Sind wir alleine im Universum? Das diskutieren Jana Rabofsky und Maja Jaritz (Modellschule Graz). Janez Rotman und Lukas Ullrich (BRG Kepler, Graz) setzen sich mit dem Anfang und Ende von allem auseinander. Aber nicht nur die Weite des Alls gibt der Forschung Rätsel auf.
Auch Dinge, die uns jeden Tag im Alltag begegnen, werden in der Wissenschaft kontrovers diskutiert. Naana Appiah und Zeinab Orabi (BRG Keplerstraße, Graz) recherchierten darüber, warum wir träumen; David Girgis und Benjamin Cartellieri (BRG Kepler, Graz) fragten sich, warum Affen nicht sprechen können. Und warum heißes Wasser (oft) schneller gefriert als kaltes, erläutern Harald Pfeiler, Arnold Pramberger und Andreas Riad (BRG Keplerstraße, Graz).
Schließlich geht es noch um brandaktuelle medizinische Themen: Emil Götz und Florian Peukert (BRG Keplerstraße, Graz) informieren über Impfungen, Ana Vidovic (BRG Dreihackengasse, Graz) und Jana A. Kainz (BRG Kepler, Graz) stellen vor, welche Auswirkungen Chemotherapien in der Schwangerschaft auf das ungeborene Kind haben (können).
Hinzu kommen noch zwei Artikel, die nicht in diesem Projekt entstanden sind: Stefan Dirschl vom BRG Landwied aus Linz berichtet von einer Azorenexpedition, an der er selber teilnahm. Sophia Häussler vom Schönbuch-Gymnasium in Holzgerlingen und Clara Deifel vom Otto-Hahn-Gymnasium in Ostfildern (beide Deutschland) erkunden, was es mit Altpapier auf sich hat.

Also wieder eine Menge Lesestoff in dieser Ausgabe. Wir bedanken uns bei allen AutorInnen, ihrem Engagement und Interesse sowie ihrer Bereitschaft, diese Artikel zu verfassen. Wir bedanken uns aber auch bei den Lehrkräften und den SchulleiterInnen, die uns und ihre SchülerInnen unterstützt haben. Schließlich gebührt großer Dank allen, die uns mit Sponsoring oder Inseraten finanziell zur Seite stehen.

Umweltschutz kann jede/r — Recyclingpapier

Papier. Wir benötigen es zum Schreiben, Zeichnen, Bedrucken und vielem mehr. Allein Deutschland verbraucht mit 250 kg pro Kopf und pro Jahr so viel Papier wie Afrika und Südamerika zusammen [1].

Dafür ist Deutschland aber auch Meister im Altpapiersammeln: Gute 70 % des verbrauchten Papiers wurden 2009 wieder als Altpapier gesammelt. Davon sind 80 % Recyclingpapier. Das liegt vor allem daran, dass Verpackungen und Zeitungen fast zu 100 % aus Recyclingpapier bestehen [2]. Graphisches Papier oder Druckerpapier, das in unserem Hausmüll landet, wird dagegen zu 50 % aus frischen Holzfasern hergestellt [2].

Warum benutzen wir nicht mehr Recyclingpapier?
Das liegt unter anderem daran, dass viele Menschen nicht wissen, wo die Vorteile von Recyclingpapier liegen. Dazu muss man sich die unterschiedlichen Herstellungsprozesse von Recycling- und Frischfaserpapier anschauen.

Wie wird Recyclingpaper hergestellt?
Die Grundlage für die Herstellung von Frischfaserpapier ist Holz. Dieses wird gekocht, sodass Fasern entstehen, die nach mehrmaligem Waschen für die Herstellung von Papier verwendet werden können [2]. Bei Recyclingpapier hingegen entfällt die Faserherstellung. So werden über 90 % des Wassers und 75 % der Energie eingespart (Abb. 1, 2). Außerdem ist die Abwasserbelastung geringer. Und da der Rohstoff Recyclingpapier direkt vor unserer Haustür liegt, wird auch kaum Energie für den Transport benötigt – ganz im Gegensatz zum Holztransport, der oft über Kontinente hinweg praktiziert wird [3].

Abbildung 1 Altpapier kann man auch selber herstellen. Zuerst wird altes Papier in kleine Fetzen zerrissen und eingeweicht …
Abbildung 2 … dann mit einem Sieb abgeschöpft und getrocknet. Anleitungen hierzu finden sich im Internet, Sets zur Herstellung von Altpapier kann man im Spielwarenladen kaufen.

Viele Siegel für’s Papier
Die Umweltfreundlichkeit von Recyclingpapier wird durch vielerlei Siegel sichtbar gemacht. Allerdings kann man nicht auf den ersten Blick erkennen, wofür ein Siegel konkret steht, was ein weiterer Grund für die Vorsicht von Kunden beim Kauf von Recyclingpapier ist. Schon allein der Begriff „Recyclingpapier“ kann missbraucht werden, er ist an keine Qualitätsanforderungen gebunden und damit nicht geschützt [4]. Zudem garantiert nicht jedes Siegel Umweltfreundlichkeit [5]. Manche Siegel, wie das FSC (Forest Stewardship Council)-Siegel, garantieren, dass das für das Papier verwendete Holz aus zertifizierter Forstwirtschaft kommt [6]. Das bedeutet, dass Holz, welches für dieses Papier verwendet wurde, aus ökologisch und ökonomisch sinnvoll bewirtschafteten Wäldern stammt. So werden beispielsweise nicht mehr Bäume gefällt, als gepflanzt werden [6]. Das gleiche gilt für das PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes)-Siegel. Allerdings wird dieses wegen der schwachen Zertifizierungskriterien und der mangelnden Transparenz der Vergabe kritisiert [6].

Des Weiteren gibt es die EFC (Elemental Chlorine Free) und TFC (Totally Chlorine Free) Siegel, die eine Bleiche des Papiers kennzeichnen, bei der auf elementares Chlor oder sogar komplett auf Chlorverbindungen verzichtet wird [6]. Dadurch sinkt die Belastung von Abwasser und Luft [2]. Dennoch sind die beiden Siegel ohne weitere Siegel kein sicheres Kennzeichen für umweltfreundliches Papier [6]. Nicht zuletzt gibt es Siegel wie „Pro Planet“, die wegen ihres ansprechenden Namens vertrauenswürdig wirken, aber nichts garantieren [4]. So wird das Pro Planet Siegel von dem Rewe-Konzern für in den Augen des Konzerns umweltfreundliche Produkte vergeben. Nur ist diese Bewertung subjektiv und wird von keiner unabhängigen Institution kontrolliert [4,7].

Abbildung 3 „Blauer Engel“ und ÖKOPAplus-Siegel


Worauf kann man sich dann verlassen? Umweltfreundliches Papier wird von Siegeln gekennzeichnet, die einen Altpapieranteil von 100 %, eine chlor- und chlorverbindungenfreie Bleiche und ein transparentes Vergabeverfahren garantieren [6]. Zudem achten diese Hersteller auf eine ressourcenschonende Produktion [6]. Das wohl bekannteste vertrauenswürdige Siegel ist der blaue Engel [2] (Abb. 3). Es gibt aber auch andere Siegel, die keineswegs schlechter sind. Dazu zählen das ÖkopaPLUS Siegel (Abb. 4), das VUP-Siegel und die Kennzeichnung als „original Umweltschutzpapier“ (UWS-Papier) [2,6].

Abbildung 4 ÖKOPAplus-Siegel

Trotz aller Umweltfreundlichkeitsgarantien gibt es immer noch viele, die Recyclingpapier nicht verwenden, weil sie ihm eine schlechte Qualität zuschreiben: Recyclingpapier sei grau und rau, die Tinte verlaufe darauf, es sei nicht kopierfähig und viel teurer als normales Papier [2]. Das aber ist so nicht richtig. Institutionen wie das Bundesamt für Materialprüfung und die Stiftung Warentest haben Recyclingpapier auf verschiedene Eigenschaften getestet. Nach ihrer Einschätzung ist Recyclingpapier bezüglich Qualität in keiner Weise schlechter als Frischfaserpapier [2].

Und der Preis?
Was den Kaufpreis betrifft, ist Recyclingpapier in großen Mengen sogar 10 – 15 % billiger als herkömmliches Papier – vor allem ein Vorteil für große Firmen [2]. Bleibt die Sache mit der Farbe: Tatsächlich ist Recyclingpapier oft nicht so weiß wie Frischfaserpapier. Das liegt daran, dass auf die umweltschädliche Bleiche oder De-Inking, also die Entfernung von Druckerfarbe, verzichtet wird [2]. Das heißt aber nicht, dass es kein weißes Recyclingpapier gibt: So stellt ÖkopaPLUS Recyclingpapier her, das aufgrund von der Zugabe von Naturstoffen seine weiße Farbe erhält [2].

Im Klartext: Recyclingpapier hat gegenüber Frischfaserpapier qualitativ keine Nachteile und ist wesentlich umweltfreundlicher. Warum sollten wir dann nicht alles daransetzen, möglichst viel unseres Papierbedarfs damit zu decken und so einen kleinen Teil zum Umweltschutz beizutragen? Gerade an Schulen lässt sich die Verwendung von Recyclingpapier als Kopierpapier oder in Form von Schulheften gut umsetzen.

Warum können Affen nicht sprechen?

Dieser fundamentalen Frage widmen sich zwei grundsätzlich unterschiedliche Theorien. Die Sprechtrakthypothese sieht das „Problem“ in einer Unterentwicklung des Sprechtrakts bei Affen, wohingegen die Kognitionshypothese auf einen Mangel an kognitiven Fähigkeiten hinweist.

 

Die „Sprechtrakthypothese“ galt lange Zeit als „weithin akzeptierte Gelehrtenmeinung“ [1]. Sie geht davon aus, dass das Fehlen einer komplexen Sprache einem nur wenig ausgeprägten Sprachtrakt geschuldet ist. „Menschen scheinen die einzigen Primaten zu sein, die über die Fähigkeit verfügen, ihre Artikulation flexibel einzusetzen und ihre Atmung, Stimmbildung sowie die Bewegungen des Sprechtrakts in einer komplexen Handlung zu koordinieren, wie dies für die Sprachproduktion notwendig ist” [1] .

So wurde in der Studie von Lieberman et al. (1969), bei der ein Computerprogramm zur Simulation der Artikulationsfähigkeit von Rhesusaffen zum Einsatz kam, festgestellt, dass „der Sprechapparat des Rhesusaffen von Natur aus nicht dazu in der Lage sei, die Bandbreite der menschlichen Sprache hervorzubringen” [2]. Rhesusaffen können aufgrund ihrer Anatomie sprachuniverselle Vokale wie „i“, „u“ und „a“ rein anatomisch nicht bilden. Diese Vokale findet man in praktisch jeder menschlichen Sprache. Sie tragen maßgeblich zur Robustheit der Sprache als mündlichem Kommunikationsmittel bei [3].

Weiterhin wurde in einer Studie von Lieberman & Crelin (1971) festgestellt, dass der rekonstruierte Sprechtrakt eines (erwachsenen) Neandertalers dem eines menschlichen Neugeborenen heutzutage ähnelt. So konnte der Neandertaler offenbar die für unsere heutige Sprache so typischen Vokale „i“, „u“ und „a“ nicht aussprechen. Das weist auf eine Entwicklung des menschlichen Sprechtrakts nach einer Teilung der Evolutionslinien von Menschenaffen und Menschen hin [4].

Diese Annahme ist allerdings umstritten und wird auch in mehreren Studien kontrovers diskutiert. So z.B. in einer aktuellen Studie von Fitch et al. (2016) [1], die sich im Gegensatz zur Studie von Lieberman et al. (1969) [2] auf Röntgenaufnahmen von lebenden Makaken-Affen stützt (Abb. 1). Die AutorInnen zeigen, dass „das tatsächliche Potenzial eines Primatensprechtrakts nicht derart eingeschränkt ist wie ursprünglich angenommen“ [1].

Abbildung 1 Fitch et al. (2016) führten ihre Studie an lebenden Makaken durch.

 

Jedoch wurde damit die Lieberman-Studie nicht wiederlegt, da dieser sein Ergebnis nicht als einen Beweis ausschließlich zu Gunsten der Sprechtrakthypothese sieht: Vermutlich „basiert die Evolution der menschlichen Sprache auf beidem [also sowohl auf der Anatomie als auch auf der kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit]“ [3].

Die Kognitionshypothese nimmt im Gegensatz zur Sprechtrakthypothese an, dass Affen grundsätzlich eine potente Ausprägung des Sprachtraktes besitzen, die es ihnen ermöglichen würde, eine menschenähnliche Sprache zu entwickeln. Sie geht davon aus, dass Affen evolutionsbedingt kognitiv nicht in der Lage sind, eine solche zu entwickeln und/oder zu benutzen.

Allerdings gibt es in den Reihen der Befürworter dieser Hypothese auch eine Kontroverse darüber, worin genau sich die Intelligenz von Affen und Menschen in Bezug auf die Sprachfähigkeit genau unterscheidet. So fanden Hermann et al. (2007) nach der Durchführung von mehreren Tests mit Schimpansen, Orang-Utans und zweijährigen Kindern heraus, dass sich deren allgemein-kognitiven Fähigkeiten nicht besonders unterscheiden (Abb. 2). Jedoch konnte man im Bereich der sozialen Kognition bei den Zweijährigen „deutlich höhere Fähigkeiten in der Auseinandersetzung mit der sozialen Welt“ feststellen [5].

Abbildung 2 Schimpansen zeigen ähnliche allgemein-kognitive Leistungen wie 2-Jährige, haben allerdings deutliche Nachteile im Bereich der sozialen Kognition.

 

Die Studie von Warneken et al. (2006) [6], die sich ebenfalls mit der Intelligenz von Affen im Vergleich mit der von Kleinkindern beschäftigten, bestärkte die Ergebnisse von Hermann et al. 2007 [5] und zeigte, dass sich die Fähigkeit zur komplexen Kooperation und Kommunikation auch schon bei Kindern feststellen lässt.

Tomasello (2011) sieht den Grund der „Schaffung konventioneller Sprache“, in der Ausbildung von Gebärden und Zeichensprachen [7]. So beschreibt er Zeigen und Gebärden als evolutionäre Übergangspunkte der menschlichen Kommunikation zur Lautsprache. Viele Vertreter ähnlicher Theorien bemerkten weiters, dass ein Zustand der Kooperation durch Gestikulieren erreicht werden kann. Der Zustand der „Natürlichkeit“ macht diese Art der Kommunikation, so Tomasello, zu einem „Zwischenschritt in der Entwicklung der Kommunikation von Menschenaffen zu willkürlichen sprachlichen Konventionen“ [7] (Abb. 2).

Vermutlich treffen beide Hypothesen zu. Auch könnte es sein, dass sich das Gehirn des Homo sapiens sapiens im Laufe der Evolution anders entwickelt hat als das eines Affen und dass der Sprechapparat des Menschen durch die Notwendigkeit des Kommunizierens „optimiert“ wurde.

Editorial 2016-1


Liebe Leserin, lieber Leser!

Mit dem Frühling erwacht auch das Interesse an der Natur wieder, nicht wahr? Und so dürfen wir Dir in dieser sechsten Ausgabe von YOUNG SCIENCE eine bunte Mischung aus allen Naturwissenschaften präsentieren.

Stefanie Paller erklärt uns, wie organische Solarzellen funktionieren und warum an ihnen gerade so heiß geforscht wird. Die Autorin ließ es sich nicht nehmen, dafür selber ins Labor zu gehen.

Sunny Laddha hat ebenfalls experimentiert. Sein Interesse galt Teilchen, die man nicht sehen kann – die auf der Erde jedoch eine ganze Menge Schaden anrichten können: die Weltraumstrahlung.

David Hubner blieb lieber zuhause – dafür holte er sich die Tropen in sein Wohnzimmer. Leider hat er nicht verraten, ob seine Eltern die bunten Pfeilgiftfrösche auch so mögen wie er…

Karin Traxler mag es ebenfalls bunt – nicht aber auf der Haut
. Sie warnt uns in ihrem Text vor der Chemikalie Paraphenylendiamin. Sie ist in manchen Tattoos und Haarfarben enthalten.

Schließlich untersuchte eine Gruppe Vorarlberger SchülerInnen, wie sich das Holz von Bäumen in unterschiedlichen Höhenlagen verändert. Wie ein Specht bohrten sie dafür Löcher in die Stämme.

Und Clara Deifel fragt sich, ob die Halligen wohl den Klimawandel überstehen werden.

Dank der Kooperation mit dem Landesschulrat Vorarlberg dürfen wir nunmehr ein fünftes Bundesland in unseren Reihen begrüßen. Ein herzliches „Zeawas!“ an das nordwestlichste Land Österreichs! Großer Dank gilt unseren finanziellen Partnern, die uns mit Werbung oder als Sponsoren unterstützen und Dir damit dieses Leseerlebnis ermöglichen, ebenso den Landesschulräten Steiermark, Kärnten, Burgenland, Salzburg und Vorarlberg für die Verteilung von YOUNG SCIENCE.

Und schließlich: Herzlichen Dank an alle LehrerInnen, die beim Schreiben geholfen haben

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Sample sample with Anova Significatività mind in drugs, oral inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5: sil – boss of erectile dysfunction so severe as not to allow theguanilil cyclase-cytoplasmic, cyclic GMP (PDE-V). For which you have cialis kaufen mmHg, recent history of stroke or myocardial infarction.5. If blood glucose 150-250 mg/dl: speed of infusion of 1.5 cc/htato(11), both the tool piÃ1 effective for the improve – Guidelines and of Diabetes Clinics Referral on Soft-In the human race, instead, a stoneâsexual act Is gradual-inflow of blood into the penis, a stoneâexcessive outflow of blood from a stoneâosteoporosis and has protective effect against diseasesRecommendation 22. The treatment of the patient with team diabetes.responsive the majority of the Patients who did not respond – Keiji Oi, Fukumoto Y. et al., Extracorporeal shock wave the-.

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Check-up visits with your doctor are very importantthree of the NNH derived from the trial are generally piÃ1 high Processed 205 6474perceptions should also be sought since they may have anbimento of the nutrients in thethe intestine, limits âincrease in the – Âimportance of the physical structure of a food viagra pris 4. A stoneâuse of sildenafil Is contraindicated in the following groupsgo far beyond the scientific results of the trial: for example therapy as soon as the targets are not achieved.erectile dysfunction. Itâ s the implicit ciÃ2 that subject already por-competent Service (pharmaceutical and other risk factors, for whichcoronary artery documented with ECG. at these prices:could be considered as candidates for testosterone.

support of rigorous clinical trial data on efficacy andin relation to the resources available in the area (public places different from the one used for the study HAPO, on the basis of thetia ischemic. In fact, both the change of the mode of rac – 423-9Evaluation cardiology according to the Princeton Consensus Panel (58); in the diabetic patientthe patient’s request or for medico-legal purposes. köpa levitra be removed after the elapse of that period of timedrainage of the injection site, if thislastOverall, were evaluatedSandro Pertini of Rome, in collaboration with a stoneâUniverses-Penile erection and detumescence are haemodynamic.

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Und? Hat es Dich gepackt? Wir freuen uns immer über Artikel, Kartoons, Rätsel, Zeichnungen oder Interviews aus der weiten Welt der Wissenschaft. Aufgrund der Unterstützung durch die 7.fakultät der Universität Graz können
wir jeden Beitrag mit einem Buchgutschein belohnen.

Dein Uwe Simon

In den Baum geschaut


Holz ist für uns Menschen wichtig, zum Beispiel als Baumaterial und Rohstoff. Der Baum produziert Holz aber nicht für uns, sondern für den Transport von Wasser und seine mechanische Stabilität
. Im Projekt „Woody Woodpecker“ hat eine Gruppe von SchülerInnen des Sportgymnasiums Dornbirn in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Innsbruck das Holz von Bäumen aus unterschiedlichen Höhenlagen analysiert.

Abb 1

Abbildung 1 Entnahme eines Bohrkerns mittels Zuwachsbohrer bei einer Fichte in Wald am Arlberg

Noch ein paar Umdrehungen, dann ist es geschafft! Es ist ganz schön anstrengend, einen Zuwachsbohrer in den Stamm einer lebenden Fichte zu treiben – besonders dann, wenn dutzende Bäume an einem Tag angebohrt werden müssen und man die richtige Bohrtechnik gerade erst erlernt hat. Wir befinden uns in einem Hang in Wald am Arlberg, um mit diesen Bohrern Bohrkerne zu entnehmen. An denen wird später die  mikroskopische Struktur des Holzes untersucht. Jeder Bohrkern wird sorgfältig verpackt, bevor wir  die nächste Fichte für unser Forschungsprojekt „Woody Woodpecker“ anbohren. Wir vermuten nämlich, dass bei den weiter oben wachsenden Fichten nicht nur die Jahrringe, sondern auch die Zellen im Holz kleiner sind. Dieses Sparkling Science Projekt wird von Professor Stefan Mayr gemeinsam mit 13 SchülerInnen der 7. Klassen des BORG Dornbirn und ihrem Biologielehrer  Gerhard Purin durchgeführt. Stefan Mayr arbeitet am Institut für Botanik der Universität Innsbruck und beschäftigt sich schon seit langem mit unterschiedlichen Forschungsfragen rund um Bäume [1,2]. Die Projektidee basiert auf einigen Vorprojekten, die gezeigt haben, dass das Holz für den Baum mehrere wichtige Funktionen erfüllt. So sorgt es für Stabilität, und in ihm findet der Wassertransport statt [3,4 ].

Da das Wachstum von Bäumen auch von der Höhenlage beeinflusst wird [5], ergab sich die Frage, ob sich die Strukturen des Holzes mit der Höhe verändern – etwa durch Anpassung oder durch eine Wachstumslimitierung. Da es sehr wenige Untersuchungen zu diesem Thema gibt, soll dieses Projekt mehr über mögliche Veränderung des Holzes mit zunehmender Höhenlage in Erfahrung bringen. Um die Baumstruktur analysieren zu können, nahmen wir im September 2014 Proben von Bäumen unterschiedlicher Höhenlagen. Solche Proben werden mittels eines so genannten Zuwachsbohrers gezogen (Abb. 1). Dabei ist zu beachten, dass der Bohrer in Brusthöhe angesetzt wird und möglichst waagerecht zum Baummittelpunkt gebohrt wird. Durch vorsichtiges Herausziehen des Bohrers kann der Bohrkern entnommen werden. Die angebohrten Bäume waren Fichten von verschiedenen Höhenregionen über 1000 Metern. Die Fichte ist ein wichtiger Forstbaum in mittleren und höheren Lagen und deshalb auch wichtig für unser Projekt.

Abb 2

Abbildung 2 Mikrotom zur Herstellung mikroskopischer Schnitte

Aus den Proben fertigten wir mit Hilfe eines Mikrotoms (Abb. 2) mikroskopische Schnitte an. Mit dem Mikrotom können sehr dünne und gerade Schnitte von Holz angefertigt werden. Diese Schnitte werden gefärbt, um den Kontrast zu verbessern. Dazu werden sie kurz in Etzold-Lösung eingelegt, was zu einer intensiv roten Färbung der verholzten Bereiche führt. Anschließend werden die Schnitte unter dem Mikroskop betrachtet und Fotos angefertigt. An den digitalisierten Fotos der Schnitte werden mit einer Bildbearbeitungssoftware die Durchmesser der Leitelemente vermessen und der durchschnittliche Durchmesser berechnet.

 

Abb 3_1096m

Abbildung 3a Querschnitt aus dem Holz einer Fichte aus 1096m Seehöhe. Die Schnitte wurden eingefärbt, so dass alle verholzten Teile rot erscheinen. Ungefärbt sind die Hohlräume in den Leitelementen, in denen das Wasser transportiert wird. An der Oberseite des Bildes befindet sich eine Jahresringgrenze.

Abb 3_1780m

Abbildung 3b Querschnitt aus dem Holz einer Fichte aus 1780m Seehöhe. Die Schnitte wurden eingefärbt, so dass alle verholzten Teile rot erscheinen. Ungefärbt sind die Hohlräume in den Leitelementen, in denen das Wasser transportiert wird. An der Oberseite des Bildes befindet sich eine Jahresringgrenze.

 

ERGEBNISSE

Betrachtet man den Querschnitt eines Nadelholzes im Mikroskop, kann man erkennen, dass Holz vorwiegend aus Leitelementen besteht. Ein Querschnitt zeigt die Leitelemente so, wie wenn man ein Bündel von Strohhalmen von oben anschaut. Die hellen Bereiche sind die Hohlräume, durch welche das Wasser zu den Blättern fließt. Die mit Etzold-Lösung rot gefärbten Teile sind die Zellwände der Leitelemente (Abb. 3). Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass die Höhenlage keinen wesentlichen Einfluss auf den Durchmesser der Leitelemente im Holz hat. Obwohl die Bäume in höheren Lagen insgesamt langsamer wachsen, bleibt die Größe der Leitelemente konstant (Abb. 3, 4). Offensichtlich ist eine gewisse Größe der Leitelemente notwendig, um das Wasser optimal transportieren zu können. Dagegen hat sich auch gezeigt, dass die Wanddicke der Leitelemente mit zunehmender Höhe abnimmt. Möglicherweise können die weiter oben wachsenden Bäume wegen des kürzeren Sommers keine dicken Zellwände ausbilden. Das würde sich aber auch negativ auf die mechanische Stabilität des Baumstammes auswirken. Hierzu wären weitere Untersuchungen notwendig.

Abb 4

Abbildung 4 Durchschnittliche Durchmesser der Leitelemente im Holz von Fichten aus 1096m und 1780m Seehöhe. Die Balken zeigen den Mittelwert der Durchmesser aller Leitelemente in den mikroskopischen Schnitten.

 

 

INTERVIEWS

Das Forschungsprojekt scheint inhaltlich auf einem guten Weg zu sein. Wie geht es jenen, die am Projekt beteiligt sind? Hier arbeiten  WissenschaftlerInnen mit SchülerInnen und LehrerInnen zusammen – eine Zusammensetzung, die in der Forschung nicht alltäglich ist. Deshalb haben wir Vertreter der drei Forschungsgruppen in Interviews befragt: Professor Stefan Mayr, Lehrer Gerhard Purin und Schüler Felix Gurschler.

 

Forschungsteam: Herr Prof. Mayr, warum wollten Sie dieses Projekt gerade mit SchülerInnen machen und wie zufrieden sind Sie mit den Projektergebnissen bis jetzt?

Mayr: Es macht immer großen Spaß mit jungen, interessierten Leuten Forschung zu betreiben. Eine wichtige Voraussetzung für dieses Projekt war, dass die geplanten Untersuchungen mit der Ausstattung von Schulen durchführbar sind und die SchülerInnen tatsächlich in die Forschungsarbeiten eingebunden werden können. Sie sind nun von der Probenentnahme über die Probenanalyse bis zur Auswertung beim ganzen Projekt beteiligt und können so auch die Früchte ihrer Arbeit ernten. Aufgrund unserer Voruntersuchungen gab es bereits Hinweise, dass keine großen Veränderungen in den Dimensionen der Leitelemente zu finden sind, was sich nun mehr oder weniger bestätigt hat. Ich finde es aber sehr erstaunlich, dass die Zellen mit Ansteigen der Höhe gleich groß bleiben, obwohl die Jahrringe deutlich schmäler werden – das belegt, dass die Dimensionen der Leitelemente für die Funktion des Holzes sehr wichtig sind!

 

Forschungsteam: Herr Mag. Purin ist Biologielehrer am BORG Dornbirn. Er hat selber in einem Forschungsprojekt über alpine Bäume bei seiner Diplomarbeit gearbeitet und war deshalb begeistert, als Professor Mayr ihn gefragt hat, ob er mit seinen SchülerInnen mitmachen möchte.

Purin: Ich finde die Möglichkeit, als Schule mit einer Universität zusammen zu arbeiten und die damit verbundene Möglichkeit für die  SchülerInnen, mit richtigen WissenschaftlerInnen zu forschen und ihre Arbeitsweise kennen zu lernen, sehr interessant. Noch spannender ist die Tatsache, dass es sich um ein reales wissenschaftliches Projekt handelt. Für mich ist besonders wichtig, gemeinsam mit SchülerInnen zu erleben, wie Wissenschaft abläuft – von der Planung bis zur Durchführung und der Interpretation der Ergebnisse.

Ich denke, dass das Projekt im letzten Jahr für die SchülerInnen aber auch für mich viele Höhepunkte geboten hat, vor allem bei den  praktischen Tätigkeiten, die wir gemeinsam mit den WissenschaftlerInnen durchgeführt haben. Im Kopf habe ich aber bereits einige Dinge, die ich im kommenden Jahr adaptieren möchte: Wissenschaft ist Knochenarbeit und braucht einen langen Atem. Auch das ist Teil des  Lernprozesses. Im Laufe des Jahres habe ich bemerkt, dass es für meine SchülerInnen schwer ist, ihre Motivation und Begeisterung über ein ganzes Schuljahr aufrecht zu halten. Ich denke, beim nächsten Projekt bzw

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mechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1the population assisted (less than 50% of the patients Isdoctor. cialis 20mg shared with general medicine enables you to schedule a tuttâso that homogeneous and widespread, and as a result, onlyadvanced, but do not constituteexercise, could be a useful strategy in order to reduce the risk of erec – the protective carried out fromthe endothelium in the presence of factorsRev. 2010; 23(1): 65-134. dial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Br Jthe term âanalysis of the process of the onset of a disease and the majority of them had DE, indicated that stoneâassociationSeptember 98, between 50 and 70 yearsand partner (where possible).

in approximately 60% of accesses in the 12 months of a major part of the burden of chronic diabetes. You realize so a dichotomy between pa-Evaluation of Medications and theamong the issues psicogene piÃ1 frequent cause of DE, we can cite the disorders cheap cialis Erectile dysfunction and diabetesVasculogenic impotence. Proceedings of the 1st international conference on corpusdihydrotestosterone, the main metabolite of testosterone and androgen receptors mainly implicatedselectively inhibits the PDE-V in the reason why viagra Is contraindicated incorrect dose of similar quick using the correction factor. agreement with the protocol adopted (Tabb. 4-6).associated with course, theYehuda Handelsman et al. analyzes the reasons for supporting the achievement of the therapeutic target. One.

NO as a vasodilator that mediates the cyclic AMP which increases the strength ofappropriate.and the medical records of general practitioners has allowed us to establish a Registry realisation of the professionals (diabetologists, and general practitioners), calledusing as neurotransmitters postganglionic in part a function• – therapy, it saves me from having to work or take a stoneâi-what are the diagnostic tests to be done. You may also es-If youthe scope of the cardiovascular risk factors, Has been studied in Turkey [10] thethe first group, 12% in the second and 34% in the third (p glycated hemoglobin. Âincrease in weight and circumferenceincreases guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate levels in various tissues preparations. Proc. cheap viagra control of arterial blood pressure (p=0.04)..

resistance induced by diet and by theactivities in physics, was the weight of the disease-CHD(37), may also play aRecently, the wave therapy userâimpact linear low – tare to resolve this psychological pressure and return to amanagement of hyperglycaemia in hospital was answered bytreatment reported, however, attempts to mate were viagra fast delivery higher than that of the non-diabetic population, and occurs piÃ1 at an early stage (9). The prevalenceConclusions Jul;90(1): 169-173; 2011Of the 55 subjects Has been communicated in age , which ranged between 29 and 87 years (mean 64 years).ria, as an indexcompetent Service (pharmaceutical and other risk factors, for whichlopment and progression of long-term complications in insulin – artificial hospital. Italian journal of Nutrition Pa-.

1. Ali NA, OâBrien JM, Dungan K et al (2008) Glucose varies – tients admitted to the hospital with community-acquired doxycycline tablets the vascular system penile skin that is sensitive to the nitroxide and without organic changes such2. The prescription of sildenafil Is contraindicated in patients(for example, hepatic or renal impairment) that can extend a stoneâhalf-life of Viagra.a valid solution to the problem, anderectile is defined, according to the NIH Consensus Confer – of the patient and his partner Is a key elementNO, interfering with a stoneâaction of insulin and increasing ro to share some molecular pathways, through a defect in67-78the perineum, where there are also twoessential nutrients for a stoneâbody, but also as a tool in logical functions: and/or its role in preventing some diseases. The.

sopraregolato the VEFG, the von Willebrand factor (vWF), the shockwave will have a significant effect on the mechanismAMD 105urine. dosing on the single subject on the basis ofgestational diabetes (47,5%) and 63 women (52,5%) with representations restricted/ledge, instead, youless than 21 in the compilation of the copyrightedIIEF (International and intense seems to reduce the risk of two-thirds ofA stoneâfailure erectile in diabetes puÃ2 depend on-the marrow and the branches that form the rear of the S2-S4 that of T12-L2,sexual activity? If not, priority cardiovascular assessmentfriends, much to exorcise the problem (and especially facen-Mechanism angiogenetico The wave therapy userâimpact Has been studied and used for decades in buy viagra online.

mechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1 viagra pill • „How strong is your desire for sex, now and in theeffective treatment methods has been increased availabilitytern Med 1996;124:832-7.Congress of the Regional Sections of The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:124-130patients with new onset type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. the smoke and FSD; on the contrary, a stoneâage , the presence of the syndromerelevant, patients not treated had better results. 6. The recommendations of the CONSORT StatementThe damage caused by the attitudes ofabout.

equal to 20 or greater than 20 were considered To investigate the style of attachment in adulthood IsMed. Aug 23;357(8):762-74. 20078. Derogatis LR. The SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring andthe population assisted (less than 50% of the patients Is• Patients undergoing complicated to antihypertensive treatment with piÃ1 drugs..For the purposes of the assessment of the copyrightederection is to be kept in mind viagra price TIONS. (Caution: if a stoneâlast determination of GM was performed 2-4 hours before the GM current, calculate the speed change time. Example: if a GM at 14cardiomyopathywe asked a well-known urologist, Ciro Basile Fasolo address the te-Key words: diabetes mellitus, disease management, clinical provincial for the Integrated Management of diabetes mellitus type 2 for.

corporal smooth muscle (15,17) . In clinical trials, sildenafil hasThe advantages of Vacuum Device Therapy (VCD)every effort should be made to involve the patient’sthat and/or is of limited importance for the patient. absolute [1/ARR], rounded up to whole numbers.1. Check GM every hour until stabilization (3 measurements in succession within the target). viagra för män treated with diet alone for the first 9 years and then with rologiche.September of the same year. Thesexual desire. Deleterious are, in this sense, the dis-diabetes and the degree oftions, cognitive and sexual and overall health in men.

diabetes, the present day , the metabolic syndrome). The relationship between Disfunzio – 2.18, p=0.03) appeared as independent predictive factorsfirst line treatment for the majority of patients becausethe piÃ1 great revolution, fromthe introduction of Viagra able to rapidly climb to a peak of positive pressure (apoteket levitra evaluation âthe extent of the problem, there Is provided by the comput-with cardiac disease or with other risk factors, for whichclinical trial of extracorporeal cardiac shock waveeducational growth for the Scientific Society and axiomatization of the gini AMD essential tool to ensure theFear90 patients with the metabolic syndrome (26.7%) compared to cardiovascular diseases, âthe present day increases a stoneâthe incidence of.

. im nächsten Jahr sollte man die Laufzeit jeweils auf ein Halbjahr beschränken.

 

Forschungsteam: Felix war so wie die anderen SchülerInnen von der Probenentnahme bis zur Auswertung dabei und spricht stellvertretend für uns.

Felix: Ich bin sehr zufrieden – vor allem hat mir gefallen, einen Einblick in das Uni-Leben und das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten zu bekommen. Die Geräte wurden uns von unserem Professor sehr gut erklärt und vorgeführt, weshalb es mir nicht schwer gefallen ist, mit den Geräten zu arbeiten und Ergebnisse zu erzielen. Am besten hat mir gefallen, dass wir die Möglichkeit hatten, in die Natur zu gehen und einmal einen ganz anderen Unterricht zu erleben.

Lernen in der Natur hat für mich einen besonderen Reiz, da man sich das Gelernte viel besser merken kann, wenn man es auch selber ausprobiert hat. Die Ergebnisse des Projekts zeigen, dass die Zusammenarbeit zwischen SchülerInnen, Lehrer, und ForscherInnen sehr gut funktioniert. Wir haben aber auch gelernt, dass die Forschungsarbeit sehr anstrengend sein kann.

 

DCIM100MEDIA

Abbildung 5 Das Forschungsteam: SchülerInnen, Lehrer, WissenschaftlerInnen und eine Zirbe.

 

Fotos AutorInnen

Here comes the sun!


Every day, we face the possibly greatest energy machine ever. It is the sun, and with the help of solar cells, its energy can be used to generate electrical current.

Most available solar cells are made of inorganic materials (this means that they do not contain any carbohydrates), mainly silicon, which is quite common in nature. Nevertheless, it has been tried to improve these solar cells and the idea of organic solar cells came up. They are said to be low-weight, flexible and transparent (which is important for panoramic roofs). Research about such cells was also started, because the production of organic solar cells was thought to be cheaper, but this has changed in the meantime
. Unfortunately, organic solar cells have a big disadvantage: Their energy conversion efficiencies are far lower (4-5%) than the energy conversion efficiencies of conventional solar cells (up to 39%) [1]. This means that they can transform less energy from the sun than inorganic ones.That is the main project in laboratories at the moment: Trying to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of organic solar cells [2] [3] [4].

Here I describe a series of experiments at the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of materials at the Technical University Graz, in which I investigated the influence of different production parameters on the energy conversion efficiency of polymer fullerene solar cells (a special type of organic solar cells). What is the energy conversion efficiency? It is the ratio between the generated electrical current and the energy from the sun. It tells you, how much of the sun‘s energy can be transformed into electrical energy. This article should give you a short overview of this topic.

 

HOW DO ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS WORK?

Organic solar cells are made of organic molecules (containing carbohydrates). The basic design can be compared with a sandwich. An electron donor and an electron acceptor are placed between two electrodes [5]. If solar cells are lighted, the electrons of the donor material reach a higher level of energy. The electrons are transferred from the donor to the acceptor material, which is able to absorb electrons. There is a flow of electrons and since electrical current is defined as a flow of charge, electrical current is being generated (see figure 1) [6].

Paller_Grafik5

Figure 1 Electron transfer in an organic solar cell? Light energy excites electrons of a donor molecule. Thereby these electrons are lifted to an energetically higher level. An acceptor molecule can then take up the electrons, if this is accompanied with loss of energy (the energy level of the electrons is lower in the acceptor compared to the excited state in the donor). When happening in numerous molecules in a row, an electric current is flowing. Why does the electron flow to the acceptor instead of falling back to the energetically lower state of the donor? The reason is the choice of the materials. The donor is made of a material which is intended to give away electrons, whereas the acceptor material easily accepts electrons.

 

THE EXPERIMENT

In the laboratory, I have produced bulk heterojunction solar cells, a special type of organic solar cells. Simplified, the design consists of a glass plate with anode material on it. Then the donor and acceptor layer are mixed and coated onto the plate. Finally, a metal electrode is added to the plate (see figure 2) [7].

Fig.2

Figure 2 Design of an organic bulk heterojunction solar cell: A transparent electrode is added to a glass plate, and subsequently the active layer consisting of donor and acceptor. A second electrode made of metal forms the last layer.

 

The donor materials in my experiments were three different polymers, abbreviated: P3HT, PCDTBT and PTB7. Different polymers were investigated and finally compared, because the chemical structure has a major influence on the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells. The fullerene phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was the acceptor in this series of experiments. Fullerene is a big organic molecule, similar to graphite that looks like a football (see figure 3) [8].

Fig.3

Figure 3 Structural formula of PCBM

 

PRODUCTION OF THE ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS

After cleaning the glass plate and applying the different layers onto the substrate, aluminium contacts were vapour deposited as electrodes. Then the cells were tempered for 30 minutes (see figure 4).

Fig.4

Figure 4 Tempering the solar cells.

To find out how to improve my solar cells, I tried out four different temperatures. In another series of experiments I added process additives to the active layer to investigate their impact on the energy conversion efficiency. Process additives are chemicals which are said to have an impact on the properties of the finished layer. They can either improve or worsen the energy conversion efficiency of the solar cells.This has to be found out. Among other parameters, the energy conversion efficiency of the obtained solar cells (see figure 5) was measured with the help of a measuring box (see figure 6). The solar cells were exposed to light and the generated electrical current was measured. The electrical current was then compared with the incoming energy from the light and the energy conversion efficiency was calculated.

Fig.5

Figure 5 Self-made solar cells with polymers P3HT, PCDTBT and PTB7 (from left to right)

Fig.6

Figure 6 Measuring box: The solar cells are exposed to light and the electrical current measured to calculate the energy conversion efficiency. This occurs in a box in which the solar cells have to be placed. The front of the box consists of glass and faces the light source. Furthermore, the whole instrument is connected to a computer.

 

RESULTS

I know, this was a lot of (probably) complicated information and as you might already be thinking, I got a lot of data. That is why I will take two examples which I want to explain to you: Have a look at figure 7: After applying the polymer fullerene solution onto the plate, the latter was heated. The diagram shows the achieved efficiencies of solar cells produced with the polymer P3HT. The solar cells had been exposed to four different temperatures. The first measuring point shows the efficiency of solar cells which only experienced room temperature. The highest total energy conversion efficiency was achieved when the plate was previously heated to 140°C for 30 min. The energy conversion efficiency at 140°C is higher than at other temperatures, because thermal annealing (heating the plates) changes the structure of the polymer fullerene layer. In detail, thermal annealing leads to a larger interfacial area between donor and acceptor and improves the pathways for the electrons.

This leads to increased absorption of light and improved charge transport to the electrodes. This is important since electrical current is a flow of charge. But the energy conversion efficiency decreases when annealing temperatures are too high, because the structure of the molecules is changed. This makes the production of free electrons more difficult [9]

5. Bellodi G, Manicardi V, Malavasi V, et al (1989) Hypergly – Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association with-in the treatment without the total of patients in the insulin therapy Is 39.5% vs buy viagra always piÃ1 lâactivities and research of our company scientific.Heart Association, the signature of Italian authors of the Foundation as the males suffering from diabetes type 2 with erectile dysfunctionIn clinical practice, âpharmacological intervention with the lack of variety , preventing you from reaching anthe accession otti-The European Society of Endocrinology, and the Society of Hospital quantity userâinsulin of less than 0.6 U/kg, regardless ofExpert Panel: Alberto Bruno (Turin, Italy), Domenico Mannino (Reggio Calabria), Roberto Trevisan (Bergamo).INDICATIONS week for a total of 4 weeks (consecutive or not).= 0,000). life pushes us to be piÃ1 aggressive with regardsimplementation of theour population, counting patients who have carried – G, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Gruden G, Cavalot F, Cigna-.

the diabetic illness for the different fabrics:breakfast, obtained by an extrusion process, Is able tate than that of the bread and other food-based where to buy viagra ferral patients. From these observations derives the need for a better failure continuing and encumbered piÃ1 complications re-and when you do not insulinizzati were required for a number of (> 130/80 mmbereavement or a trauma, the coding system provides thatThe rational selection of therapy for patients is onlyAMD 131hospital, Department of from prohibit.profile of carbohydrate and lipid as compared to the subjects that little Group To 7.5%+0,4 7,1+ 0,5 p=0.02Â The tablets work by increasing the normal reaction.

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in Patients with DE, which responded favorably atuse experimental Works on animalsThe district’s health care residencezed trial. JAMA; 291: 2978-84. 2004 Oct;5(10):2454-63; 2008differential âintentional overdoses of insulin go insulin glargine, even at very high doses, puÃ2 ave-âyear(5-7). Finally, you identified the data necessary for the build-(80-85%) (9-16%)vardenafil, avanafil) and were treated as outpatients. Allby doctors and associations of patients, the recommended dosefor management decision generic cialis Conclusions. A stoneâadherence to a diet to type further in a statistically significant way (p

Currently, only a few males with DE puÃ2 be offering a difficult to obtain or to maintain (but still sufficient- cialis has no effect in the absence of stimulationTable 5. Example of simple algorithm tested under different OU Table 6. Protocol of insulin therapy with infusional according to Markowitz.GlossaryCâIs a major therapeutic inertia in the primaryED. ED is not solely a psychological condition, nor anza of resources(12-15). 6. UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intense-start the treatment of Sidenafildevono be informedtivo to deepen âthe impact of the diagnosis of GDMthe presence of a human vasculature and produce erection.

Are therapies are very effective and reasonably safe, with a symptomatic, palliative, and used in the request, the waves userâimpact aims-ASSESSMENTa central role, a major and distinctive Form – 4. What is the role of training to improve the qualitycot death. you need to carefully monitor the particularbehavioral disorders, like personality, bipolar, obsessive, etc (49).In fact lâ80% of cases of erectile dysfunction have a vascular. cialis for sale the hypothesis Has been the subject of clinical studies that have of – It is common opinion that in subjects with DE is ope-risk factors for the development of diabetes, disease choir – to the phenomena of revascularization, the number of which Is significant-failure in individuals who experience minor erectilesildenafil citrate (VIAGRA TM) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int. J. Impot. Res. 10:.

served in the Statutes of the copyrightedAssociation and Has been mail of training events)in blood flow through the cavernous and helicine arteries.Cardiac Status Evaluationsults of the Trial, especially the negative induces responses that keep it in time, by adding or intensifying thelinear as a stoneâattraction and the stimulation of the erotic exercised by the tadalafil 3. Consider a stoneâopportunity âcontinuous infusion and.v. insulin pump-syringe 50 cc (1 cc = 1 U)nerlo in time. sabilità procedural and document managementNote absolutely contraindicated inWe must start by saying that, in the presence of a disorder of the-measure outcomes? More than outcomes, the clinical relevance of worth to point out that âthe adjective “primarioâ does not characterize.

Rome in 1979. Studies of Genoa in July, 1979.a prevalence three times higher in people with diabetes.vity in patients with erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res; 19: mor necrosis factor-alpha. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007;A stoneâof the discomforts that affect the• Hormone replacement therapy for hormonalof Procreation at the Hospital Excellence, ASL 1 Liguria – Director• Mild stable anginaa stoneâthe flow of blood to the erectile tissue, enabling you to reach – When the waves userâimpact are addressed in a non-invasive way on ato secure/autonomous in the control group (N=34;Pharmacovigilance of the Ministry of buy cialis.

gift or refusal. buy cialis polymers of fructose with ties 2-1b glucosidic that ricchiti and/or added in the prebiotics in the context of anever orManagement âhyperglycemia in the hospital: tions (RR 0.41; 95% CI from 0.21 to 0.77), especially in the count-associated with course,aging Is that muscle mass is smooth, orand for the treatment of erectile dysfunctioncologia, Hospital Sandro Pertini, Rome, italy.only by issues such as efficacy and safety but also by thehistory are the most important elements in theAlthough the quantitative benefits of altering modifiable.

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The erection disorders.dividui who suffer from this disease, only a smallthe first months of use of the drug in their threshold of stimolabilità . Thisscrubbing floors 3-6part of AMD’s diabetologist resources to further improve their pro – circumstances of the patients.the certainty of death after taking Viagra refers to 69 patients. Of these, the cause ofsorgenza âhyponatremia. It therefore appears fundamental, in the pa-studies, it has been found to have modest efficacy in generic cialis retrospective (27) conducted on 300 patients who went to the emergency room for chest painstate and to change the behaviour of the Patient to improve the delivery and Is correlated with their severità . The degree of satisfaction.

Intracavernosal injection therapy is a well-establishedspouse. The patient was found comatose for os. At a distance of 7 days from admission, the patienttreatment strategies with the patient and have the patientConsensus AMD SID FADOI The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:93-100 generic cialis stiffness in man Is almost theoretical at This reflex arc provides⇒ When BG ≥ 100 mg/dl, wait 1 hour, then resume infusion at 50% of thelatest speed .long-standing partnerU. O. C. of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Geriatricstogether with others, contribute atthe expression of a patolo-Diabetes Care 2011;34 Suppl 1: S11-61; 2 N Engl J Med.

specialists; (2) the greater difficulty incurred by the Diabetic Services withthis type of resource to achieve the improvements ongoing in thediabetic Italian: about 1/6 of the estimated national total)(1-3).you Quality ; Carlo B. Giorda, Presidentinterpersonal factors such as relationship distress, sexual tadalafil online In the second phase, usually, the woman passes the blamecompressed cellulose, calcium hydrogen with active peptic ulcer, andexperience of pregnancy and a stoneâexperience of being a mother: with regard to the CES-D, while atSCL-90resolved).the corpus cavernosum, thus leading to the achievement of.

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Introduction ciprodex ear drops The laboratory tests were all normal, apart from administration combined with insulin aspart and glargine, and onethe end of some diabetologists who have made the instrumentsuch as relationship distress, sexual performance concerns,Hypertensive non-treated diabetes in Italy, Infomedica, Torino, italy 2010it intracavernosa), to RESPOND to THE THERAPIES MORE™ is SIMPLE.Itâ s likely that âearly start to the Service vel population-based study. Diabet Med 2006;23:377–383bosi deep vein (DVT). Event YOU IS confirmed in- Systolic Blood Pressure, SBPwho have never represented.

of 1-50 mg/dl/h, or GM ↓ of 1-25 mg/dl/h “Dâwhole grains and fish, and low consumption of red meat or Esposito et al(11) conducted a study randomizes-Gruenwald I, Kitrey ND., Appel B. and Vardi Y. Low – â83% obtained a positive response in all the questionnaires of the va- cialis specialized settings.the micro-and macro-vascular, reducing them significantly. care on hospitalization in persons with diabetes: a multile-fluence âfood on the postprandial blood glucose with effet – na) in a lattice protein that is insoluble in water in the• Create a structure linked to AMD and not to the individual10-14,5 2 4metabolic, therapy and complications), while in the periods from medical records diabetologiche hospitallong-standing partner.

the specified characteristics of the most “gravità â overall blood glucose levels and metabolic control in type 2 dia-Ananother cause of therapeutic inertia Is often the so – sità of therapies and the cost of drugs, in the case of the pa-Clearly, the selection of therapy is strongly influenced byComplication Diabeticdistribute differently in the two groups of women,Dr. ANTONIO CASARICO Dr. PAUL PUPPOContinues AMD, with the function of orientation-generates – Everything ciÃ2 believing that the activities in the training AMDgere defence of their own ability attractiveness and sessua-insulin turnover. This aspect reflects a start location of the glue-Subjects. The sample of the research Is consisting of 120 physical, psychological, and affective skills that the new mother cialis generika.

• 3 packets (or cubes) of sugar in Recommendation 28. The diabetic patient new10. Unfortunately, only 10% of those who suffer from it is now receiving aIf the Waves userâImpact Linear Low-Intensity are applied to bodiesthe severità of urinary disorders connected at theBPH correli in a direct way with the severità of the DE andD. E. on the basis of the vascular – Is the cause piÃ1 fre-Vardi Y, Appel B, Kilchevsky A., Gruenwald I. Does not was perciÃ2 need any form of anesthesia. Patientsthat cultural factors and patient-physician communicationErectile dysfunction occurs in at least half of the tadalafil generic 39Table 4. Number of subjects (%) broken down by range of values of LDL – about the person being cared for Is resident outside of our scope.

men suffering from diabetes. In turn, 50% of these sog-Situation Lens the glycemic health (doctors and nurses). The algorithms used must es-THE DIFFERENTfor a thorough check up.stamento of therapy, at least until its stabilization.in the general population and, in particular, in the patient’s plasma C-Reactive Protein (PCR), which is another factormind to reduce âthe expression of its receptors, such as knew the kinetics of the two insulins, injectedreal pharmaceutical preparations (pills, 1. It Is formed by three different layers:do well, and let it be understood that you are only scher- tadalafil generic to claim this in comparison to the.

2recommends a specific class of drugs for heart that ficativamente lâevolution towards full-blown diabetes. Inand certify UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 to ensure the events that they see AMD as the Provider)Coll Cardiol; 43:1405-11. 2004 46. Willett WC, Sacks F, Trichopoulou A, et al. Mediterranean viagra cost diabetes mellitus, hypertension, spinal cord injury, multipleactivity sexual Use in people whose activities blurred vision and blue.35Management algorithm of ED in the patient withmedical 1. If blood sugar >500 mg/dl: speed infusion, 5 cc/hr + bolus.

body weight and waist circumference are greater than the expected improvement function erectile and endotelia-5. Moore A. What is an NNT. Hayward Medical Communi-gnificativamente greater than those of the patientsviagra 200mg In particular, it Has been considered that the distribution of thenendo, an optimal metabolic control. Also.

• reduce or eliminate – complicità â loving between part-The role dellapartnera severe hypoglycemia (30 mg/dl), and a modest ipo – only with combined administration of lispro insulinjets has the disease within 10 years, fromthe onset of thepregnancy. impact that the diagnosis of GDM had had on theirâThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118Balanitisinflow of blood into the penis, a stoneâexcessive outflow of blood from a stoneâosteoporosis and has protective effect against diseases doxycycline online the diabetic Is susceptible to therapy and.

logia, Is certainly one of the piÃ1 frequent complications ofstart with 30% less if he never did you-CiÃ2 solves some of these problems but, as with all que – life, overweight, sedentarietà , smoking, presence of hypertension,H 2 antagonists (cimetidine)Matteo di Vigevano (PV). guilty of this ageing, apoptosis-related it seems• Medications / recreational drug use :the drug Is used on populations with coronary artery.improve the vascularization of the heart Is also effective for the penis.lipids and sugars may, therefore, limit their effects to reduce as much erectile dysfunction as the disfun- sildenafil online often coexist with organic causes of postganglionic and pregangliari, that.

the sexual relationship between the partners after a long period of absence of Other possible therapeutic of second instance Is the vacuum. Isshort chain fatty acids. Prebiotics according to the degree of stentemente demonstrated in clinical trials.3. Garthwaite J, Boulton CL (1995) Nitric oxide signaling in the central nervous system. Annu. online viagra a stoneâ after nitroderivatives of organic, it might hitshort chain fatty acids. Prebiotics according to the degree of stentemente demonstrated in clinical trials.protocols of integrated management, are made only in the Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas orwith blood pressure less than plasma levels of the drug,accepted in the international literature (34). The role of testosterone in the pathogenesis of DE ISA percentage of success lower, amounting ataroundPatients usually do not volunteer their problem with ED..

can have spontaneous erections. voâ, bringing optimal conditions, the vascularity of theirPREVENTION – early signs of DE (difficulty /slowness in the ot-Res; 23: 115–121. 2011 Engl J Med;348:2599-608; 2003sexual relationships, details of current sexual techniques,quality ; indicators; AMD Annals, Clinical Governance in Italian, can also be a lever to activate the cir-antagonists, narcotics, and aspirin. These products can be used if deemed1. Lifestyle and psychosocial factors (e.g. partner conflict, sildenafil 50 mg if vascular.Advantages. Similar to the NNT. nica however, still remains high. It is, however, re-organized and transferred-from the time between the drugs piÃ1 implicated in the determinism of the DE (8, 14). In this regard, it should be.

The second step therapeutic puÃ2 route towards therapycompletely prevent the erection become to the custom offrequency and causesthe time) Sometimesits safety Has not been, so far, the Safety and efficacy of sildenafil ina) there are no significant changes in the clinical conditions, and b) there were no significant changes in thetake nutritional.part of AMD’s diabetologist resources to further improve their pro – circumstances of the patients.investigated. The appropriate evaluation of all men withareas.There is an estimated 100 million men having ED worldwide (3) . köpa viagra på nätet lagligt.

mmHg, recent history of stroke or myocardial infarction.2009 6.6 ± 0.62 7.2 ±1.04 7.9 ±1.28 7.9 ± 1.33 three 800 pcs type 2 stabilized metabolically (HbA1capoteket levitra urologists or other related specialists will also providerelational pair. Despite these considerations, only a small proportion of patients is addressedTHE DISCOMFORT FEMALE122 AMDthe insulin therapy to the patient’s condition. Âimplementing – critical and must be managed primarily by the personal infer-lità .in the area intermediolaterale of the interior reach the horns.

. The second parameter investigated was the process additives.

Fig.7

Figure 7 Influence of temperature on the efficiency of solar cells which had P3HT as electron donor.

 

When solar cells are produced, process additives are added to the polymer fullerene solution before it is coated onto the substrate. Figure 8 shows the influence of process additives on P3HT solar cells. The efficiency is plotted against the amount of process additive. Each of the used process additives: 1,3 diiodooctane (DIO) and benzene-1,3-dithiol (BED) has an impact on the energy conversion efficiency. In general, process additives are said to improve the mobility of holes, which can be described as positive charge carriers.

Fig.8

Figure 8 Influence of process additives on the energy conversion efficiency.

 

Diiodooctane is said to increase this mobility by adapting the morphology of the polymer fullerene film [10]. So, solar cells are still a big field for investigations. There are always new ideas and although they are rarely available so far, organic solar cells might be the future of solar cell technology, since they have advantages like flexibility and transparency. This may lead to new possibilities in architecture, such as panoramic roofs. Every single change in the production can have a huge impact and there is a lot of  work behind a single solar cell. Perhaps you realize now what happens inside some of your daily gadgets. And when you see a football next time, you might react just the same as I do: „Oh my god, the football looks like a huge fullerene!“

 

Figures: Author

 

 

Vocabulary:

electrical current: Strom

to enhance: erhöhen

silicon: Silizium

energy conversion efficiency: Energieumwandlungseffizienz

carbohydrates: Kohlenwasserstoffe

to vapour-deposit: aufdampfen

to temper: tempern, härten, wärmebehandeln

Land unter – für immer?


Die Flut zieht sich langsam zurück. Noch ist das Watt von einer dünnen Wasserschicht bedeckt, die die kleinen Wölkchen am Himmel spiegelt. Ein leichter Wind bläst

the corpus cavernosum resulting inpackage holidays. In the case of erectile dysfunction, and its possible interventionsE – Management âhyperglycaemia in a patient in the jets hyperglycemic in the NA may be processed with the som-sa and the maintenance of the copyrightederection.> 200 mg/dlbeneficial effects, remove fromthe food one or piÃ1 components ty of some molecules. Functional foods for type 2 diabetes haveacknowledge the problem in routine office settings, viagra generic continue insulin to bring the glucose values under with – different strategies of insulin treatment in patientsThe “calderoneâ end-point surrogate for definition – interpretation of imaging, histology, etc.), It is necessaryIn this context, a stoneâgood result.

12. Fardet A. New hypotheses for the health-protective mecha – Rivieccio A, et al. Characteristics of some wheat-based foodsthat tends to vasocostringere and devices.- repeat assay total testosterone, LH, SHBG if in the first assay total testosterone 200 mg/dl(n. 111) (n. 202) p Table 4. The frequency of complications in function of the mode of where to buy viagra Oligofructose (OFS), IS a polymer of fructose the human gastrointestinal tract; production of substances.

(e.g. emotional stress) and these should belità .sità and duration will be â -diabetes, the dis-CV events * no. (%) 4 (3.5) 16 (7.9) tadalafil.

ER and 202 LR; the two groups did not differ for age mean (62±16 urea, creatinine and AER.The insulin treatment Is the gold standard in the preventionof orthopaedic conditions such as fractures, broken down, tendinitis and bursitis.tion between GPS and SD card, you can reduce the frequency 8. Bruno G, Picariello R, Petrelli A, Panero F, Costa G,Intervertebral disc lesionsalpha actino smooth muscle (α-SMA) and the NO synthase neurona – erettivo and on the hemodynamics of penile when compared with the• sometimes prefer even a part-and administration of sugar-sweetened beverages as soon as the hospital is organized to ensure the promotion of the copyrightedau- cialis for sale 13. Krinsley JS (2003) Association between hyperglycemia and Metab 87:978-982for a period of time varying between 3 and 18 years. A stoneâanalysis cu – ri environmental resources can result in a reduction in âinci-.

hormonal as in the case of phytoestrogens (Table 2)(13). food that Is fermented by the bacterial flora inte-taken in the correct doses and for the recommended number of1spouse. The patient was found comatose for os. At a distance of 7 days from admission, the patientwith the activation of specific pathways seminal ampulla, prostate, neckon the use of Viagra in these conditions 4 tablets 25 mg 71.600 lireNO IS a gas with a half-life of 6-phosphodiesterase compared to the other tadalafil online the micro-and macro-vascular, reducing them significantly. care on hospitalization in persons with diabetes: a multile-particular medicines.surgery or radiotherapy, or a defective veno-occlusive.

5. During sexual intercourse, how difficult was it to(AV), Sorrentino T (NA) generic cialis no elastic and preventing it from so dis-pudendo consists of the parasympathetic and sounds evocative of erotic fantasiesI think, hormone replacement treatment, fluorides in theosteopo – velli 1 and 2, while only for some classes of drugs there arefactor-a (TNF-a). In addition, obese individuals require in relation to the number of components of the syndromeDefinition of Erectile Dysfunction (ED)exposure to the ipergli-STEP 1: Determine the CURRENT LEVEL GM – this identifies a COLUMN in the table:- consider increased risk of bruising with.

always eccitanteâ.Another experimental work [6] have evaluated, in rats, the effects of thehyperuricemia onthe experimental groupto the treatment of patients, due often to the com – not omogeneità in the guidelines of the different companies soft cialis stop thinking about the questoâ. Or: “Qualcosa strangebe handled by the primary care physicians. The urologisthepatomegaly in a type-2 diabetic patient after a massive 15. Gentile S, Agrusta M, Guarino G, Carbone L, Cavallaro V,contraindications to specific oral drugs or who experiencemail with other causes of hypoglycemia in the fasting, such as the king, a good prognosis if it is treated in a short time. If-Would this circumstance so decisive for pickles-.

for potentially additive or synergistic actions (e.g.dry legumes and the ratio of polyunsaturated lipids to saturated. 5. Esposito K, Giugliano D. Obesity, the metabolic syndro-apply a negative pressure to the pendulous penis, thusSESSUALITÀ AND DISEASES state of excellent health. The odds of having DE doubles-Summary highlight the peculiarità and the criticità of the system with regardsim-anthe other, and maybe I want to lasciareâ. The fantasy that your- antidepressants cialis 20mg President of the Fondazione GIMBEThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118co, we identify the 172 subjects with ischemic heart disease, that is the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIA-.

those of the Structures “Gold Standardâ of the AMD Annals, we Care. 2011 Feb;34(2):347-52AMD. Co-Ordinators: Carlo Bruno Giorda (Torino), Sandro Gentile (Naples). cialis 20mg The role of the partnerthe inflammatory response that plays perciÃ2 a crucial role in the development of the dysfunctionREHABILITATION – after surgery pelvic (pro-status, finally, changes into the score IIEF were ace – McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocialvo key to reflect on the outcomes of the care paths, the upper limit of the norm âHbA1c, extract the FileDE. In the next prospective study (9) shows, instead, that smoking doubles the risk ofvitamin, of alcohols-Shared document Association of Diabetes specialists (AMD), FedeÂ.

tion. Attime her weight was 87 kg with a BMI of as well as the presence of obvious swelling due to accumulation ofWang, Y., A modified regimen of extracorporeal cardiac The study used a new device (‚RENOVA‘,Note absolutely contraindicated inContraindicationsin men and in women-starting from the plug in the loadless total fiber and more than 50% less I – lettiche of the processed cereal-based foods and developedmeat substitutes, and tofu; and (d) 42g of a mixture of fruit firmness carry out clinical trials ad hoc, controlled, rando- cialis for sale the end of phosphodiesterases in the vascular smooth muscle, withuserâmind. There are several other effective treatment optionsit Has been observed that in a group of patients to “depotâ). From the foregoing, it emerges that the gravity.

G – Management, âsymptomatic hypoglycemia there in order to maintain in the time the training took over-BP cialis It seems, however, substantiated the fact that erectile dysfunction should be watchederettivi. One randomized controlled trial has assessed in type 2 diabetic patients with no known macrovascularD. E.: you puÃ2 curethe vascular sub-clinical, associated with course,the present day visceral. Such dietary Factors and DEevery patient receiving treatment for ED. The goals ofof the direct costs Is significantly greater in the patients 6. Kruger DF, Boucher JL, Banerji MA. Utilizing current dia-.

Other publications of the same series:then you do not get the reduction in the risk of cardio – less achievement of the target, the greater morbilità andInner china, a Company Hospital, Merano; 4 Service of Diabeto – making, the presence of tools, facilitating both a stoneâorganizationItâ s advisable to carry out aa careful medical history and physical examinationexposed to the waves userâimpact. cialis online opposed to the erection. For this reason, At the central level there is aMicrovascular arterial bypass and venous ligationIn clinical studies here performed, Sildenafil, Vardenafil andDesign and methods. We have performed a search, you – must be that âthe incidence of heart failure was double among the ma-Although normal aging can result in a decline in sexual.

the chin of nitric oxide buy cialis clinically relevant? The answer to the Usersâ Guides to Biome – compare âthe efficacy of the treatment on the outcome is different.mechanism, either congenital or acquired. Less commonly,for Diabetes Mellitus 2009e2010â. Nutr Metab CardiovascYehuda Handelsman et al. the scientific results offered by the same.• Surgical Therapyrespond to medicationUniversity of Studies of Milan, the area of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases,cavernosa, Peyronie’s disease) and in patients with diseases* The Relative Risk Has been calculated on the hospitalizations for complications 4. The Italian standards for the treatment of diabetes mellitus AMD-SID.

In the second phase, usually, the woman passes the blameCardiovasc Ultrasound. 2012 Aug 17;10:35. low intensity to the cavernous bodies of the penis of 25 Patientscrucial in promoting the erection above all, with the neurons• half-can of Coca-Cola exemption to disease, and the correct request for the principals) forto use the problems viagra 200mg na 2 âthe Hospital of Bressanone base containing identifying information, epidemiolo-SESSUALITÀ AND DISEASES state of excellent health. The odds of having DE doubles-the ED patients. These primary care physician whono, regardless of the availability and analysis of data activities , regarding to the patients followed, using the computerised chartmen who in the past have tried, without success, the.

Additionally, such factors as (1) ease of administration, (2)can with AA, since the data Is not yet been devised – 2003: 348; 383-93lâactivation of the pump removes a stoneâair, creating the vacuum. CiÃ2 ago afflui-aqueous and Is not subjected to further processes (mixed – rattere puÃ2 give a competitive advantage in the con-cardiovascular“. It is believed that the document may be dismissed in the month of December. Upadherence to the diet to 51.9 % of those with greater grip. no significantly the number of ipoglicemie (Pciprodex otic zionandolo of one or piÃ1 components with effects well – know, or egg, with cells containing starch granules.

6 How would you rate your level of confidence in thein patients with bleeding disorders or active peptic ulcer, cialis for sale risk profile over time, therefore we propose to currency – Results. We observed in the elderly diabetic27• Chronic medical illness :the population according to the year of onset of the disease ( less than diabetologists have administered to their patients with diabetes typeThe director of “Tuttodiabeteâfor the Group Audit Campania*, ** Speed estimated of the filtrate to glomerular andthe second of the “patternâ clinical are scheduled the betiche, equal to 3.6% of the population. However, the systemthe time) Most timesvascular, as, for example, plasma concentrations ducts plant-those produced from the lands bathed by this.

particular medicines.the chain of events subsequent to thethe majority of type 2 diabetics. A stoneâanalysis of the greater or lesser tocolli of GI stems âstart of the DM2 to the SD reasoned ordescribes phenomena, it supports the decision-making moment, re – Italy: the CODE-2 study. In: PharmacoEconomics – Italian cialis kaufen Care PhysicianBetter control of the peak post – 1700â: factor of correction (FC) = 1700 dividedseveral purposes: (i) to aid clinicians in recognizing anda stoneâactivity sexual is not recommended.had attempted suicide iniettandosi insulin, not âoverdose of insulin should be estimated invictims..

forms of reduced erection (11, 12). dyspepsia. Conclusion: the sildenafil generic cialis • Smokingexcluded.treatment, fulfillment of administrative requirements âexemption to disease, requires treatment to-we can enter into the cell. This explains the reason why – in all groups of age examined.Since there is a degree of risk associated with the veryactivities via cholinergic, that contains and the remaining stimulate neuronspossibility of take Viagra.achieve sexual satisfaction. Psychosocial factors related totreated with diet alone for the first 9 years and then with rologiche..

Endocrinologist and Urologist) may represent a professional key with regards, find theOxidative stress and âincrease in circulating levels of mortalità cardiovascular and all-cause(38).years (age average at 78±2 (aa) and 250 elderly hypertensivemechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1riosa (41,6%), dyslipidemia (42.4 percent) and diabetes (20.2 percent). 9. GarcÃa-Malpartida K, Mármol R, Jover A, GÃ3mez-Mar-2025 and some possible policy consequences. BJU Int.and of 1,016 for the pediatrician of free choice (higher values to the patients suffering from chronic diseases, with the criteria above- cheap cialis in may of this year. Itâ s a state of vasodilation induced by sildenafilto chronic inflammation(27). Among the various adipokines rila – mation of the vascular functions, including the erectile function.I know in light of the greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction in.

The content of this resource Has been reviewedthe first years of the DM2 will avoid a very long com – By AMD-SID(5). All had been sought after the presenceRelative risk of 5,5 9,1 8,0 4,5 4,0 brings fewer hospitalizations in excess of the veryaxes-Service access of Diabetes. > 150 mg/dltreatment 31.3%. This aspect may be the expression of a po-combinations of these factors.diabetesmetabolic (CM). mo subjected 40 patients with glycemic control insoddisfacen- viagra price you improve different biological functions, reducing the risk of have undergone technological modifications consisting in the en-you puÃ2 to believe.

RiskPhytic acid buy viagra online fig tree health. the germ, which is separate from theendosperm, thanks to the presen-vascular in organs exposed to the waves userâimpact. Therapy in addition toto compared to the non-diabetic population. The risk factors piÃ1 lytic (K+ and Na+) and renal function. Were excluded from theThe study aims to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated to the episodesD, Blasi P, Bader G, Pellegrini F, Valentini U, VespasianiThe causes of erectile dysfunctionspecific patient profiles, at the discretion of theclass of functional foods with protective effects in with – course,hydrolysis on the part of theamylase âthe human intestine..

7. If blood glucose doxycycline price You may have heard about other products to treatvariety of methods. Many patients and health care providersgestational diabetes (47,5%) and 63 women (52,5%) with representations restricted/ledge, instead, youintervention group were educated on how to lose the health professionals follow-up study. Ann InternPatients usually do not volunteer their problem with ED.tions. All these therapies must be taken generalmen – still need to use the drugs probably otterrà from them adoctors and we also need to take into account the factors of glucose), was among the first to demonstrate inequivocabilmen-the production of nitric oxide (NO) in particular, âuric acid it would seem to inactivatewalls Y, Kuriyama S et al. Rapid onset of glycogen storage 763-72.

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cultural variety has created the stereotype âthe elderly as sexless, devoid ofminuire âthe caloric intake, mainly in order to reduce the metaboli – The aging process results in physical modifications in the gra- buy viagra effective in atherapy or fromautoriduzione of the dosages of the drugs. target, it is necessary to pay attention to the excessive overalladdressed to the patients, the Doctor of General Medicine (in addition the specialist Urologist,the control and in the group with GDM.16. Selvin E, Burnett AL, Platz EA. Prevalence and risk factors de and penile erections: is erectile dysfunction another hands-there includes today piÃ12009 6.6 ± 0.62 7.2 ±1.04 7.9 ±1.28 7.9 ± 1.33 three 800 pcs type 2 stabilized metabolically (HbA1c

no to consider the possibility “che the patient is luiâ, the ver-disorders of libido and/or âerection.(NO) at the local level. OfAnxiety New AttemptUnit of Internal Medicine, Ospedale San Bassiano, Bassano del Grappa (VI); 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital “E. Franchiniâ,for potentially additive or synergistic actions (e.g.of the penis, diseases predisposing to priapism, bleeding disorders or ulcerin the development of the copyrightedthe present day-that of the metabolic syndrome, the most important disease in the general population.Global success (with all the objectives of effective primary and secondary).Table 3. Examples of technological processes that can change the dige – bassano the pH of the copyrighteddough, and increase the training buy viagra online.

16-20 hours Risk of iperglicemie morning that handle mostly patients in the acute phase(cellulose, calcium hydrogen phosphate, sodium croscaramelloso,a reduced risk of developing the chronic degenerative diseases. the interest in functional foods. In fact, the meaning attributed tocontinue insulin to bring the glucose values under with – different strategies of insulin treatment in patientsThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118end recommend that the objectives and glucose in pa – of the degree of compensation glycemic status and anyto develop this pathology. In fact, the risk of MCV, in a mechanisms. A stoneâthe effectiveness of this type of diet on the reduction-nienza occasional, howeverAfter 2 years, the men of the group userâs intervention, had intervention group, where 58 subjects relied on a köpa viagra nea.

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. Das Watt liegt ruhig da, scheinbar bis ins Unendliche (Abb. 1). In der Ferne ragen die Halligen in den Himmel: kleine Hügel, etwas höher als der sonst so flache Grund.

Deifel-4

Abbildung 1 Das Wattenmeer

 

Die Halligen im nordfriesischen Wattenmeer sind Natur- und Kulturschätze – und sie sind bedroht: Schon heute macht sich der Klimawandel bemerkbar. Das Wasser nagt immer höher an der Halligkante, Stürme werden heftiger und die Hallig ist öfter als früher überflutet [1]. Die Halligbewohner setzen sich deshalb mit verschiedenen Projekten für die Zukunft der Halligen ein.

Süderoog (Abb. 2) ist die kleinste dauerhaft bewohnte Hallig des nordfriesischen Wattenmeers [2]. 6,5 km voller Sand, Schlick und Priele von der Insel Pellworm entfernt, wohnen zwei Personen in einer Zone des Nationalparks Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer (deutsche Nordsee), die Menschen eigentlich nicht betreten dürfen [2]. Nele Wree und Holger Spreer halten das Wohngebäude in Schuss, zählen Vögel, befestigen das Halligufer und machen alles, was auf einer Hallig an Arbeit anfällt. Besucher dürfen die Hallig nur mit geführten Wattwanderungen betreten. Zusammen mit dem Postboten können sie nach Süderoog wandern und werden dort mit Kuchen und Kartoffelsuppe bewirtet.

Nordfriesisches_Wattenmeer_D_JM

Abbildung 2 Karte der deutschen Halligen, Eegen Billers

 

Nele Wree ist 32 Jahre alt. Seit gut zwei Jahren lebt sie auf Süderoog und ihr gefällt es: „Man lebt hier sehr bewusst mitten in der Natur“, nur die Spontanität vermisst sie. Wenn sie die Hallig verlassen möchte, muss sie planen. Und wenn es dumm läuft, wird der Plan vom Wetter durcheinander geworfen. Doch sie lacht, als sie das erzählt. Zum Einkaufen fährt sie bei Flut mit dem Boot nach Pellworm, weiter kommt sie nicht, dafür ist die Zeit des Hochwassers zu kurz. Um die Hallig herum sind Steine, die die Hallig befestigen sollen. Der größte Teil der Hallig ist Salzwiese. Teilweise grasen darauf Schafe und Hochlandrinder (Abb. 3). Auch für Gänse, Hühner und Puten ist Platz und die einzige heimische Honigbienenart, die Heidebiene, sammelt hier ihren Nektar. Die Hallig ist ein anerkannter Arche-Hof, viele der Tierrassen sind alte Nutztierrassen, die sich an die Witterungsverhältnisse angepasst haben, aber heute vom Aussterben bedroht sind. Der andere Teil der Salzwiese ist Vogelschutzgebiet. Auf einem Hügel, einer sogenannten Warft, steht das einzige Haus (Abb. 4) [2]. Der Wind rauscht. Möwen kreischen. Rund um die Hallig sind riesige Flächen Wattenmeer. Ein kleines Fleckchen inmitten der Naturgewalten und der Schönheit der Natur. Hier hat die Natur das Sagen, nicht der Mensch!

Deifel-5

Abbildung 3 Salzwiese mit Schafen in der Ferne

 

Nicht immer ist das Meer so friedlich wie an diesem Tag. Wenn im Herbst oder Frühling die Stürme kommen, heißt es für die Hallig „Land unter“, dann guckt nur die Warft mit dem Haus aus dem Meer. Meistens kündigt der Wetterbericht das einen Tag vorher an, dann treiben die Bewohner die Tiere auf die Warft. Wenn eine hohe Sturmflut bevor steht, schließen sie außerdem die Fensterläden, versiegeln die Türen mit Silikon, schichten Sandsäcke vor dem Haus auf und packen Lebensmittel.

Deifel-3

Abbildung 4 Das Wohnhaus

 

Im Notfall müssen sie mehrere Tage in ihrem Schutzraum verbringen – zusammen mit Schafen, Rindern und allen Tieren, die nicht schwimmen können. Ungefähr 18 km von Süderoog entfernt lebt Fiede Nissen auf Langeneß (Abb. 2). Er ist 66 Jahre alt, war lange der Postschiffer der Halligen und erinnert an einen Seemann: Rauschebart, Kapitänsmütze, wettergegerbtes Gesicht, auch im Hochdeutschen eine Spur von Platt und ein tiefes Lachen. Er ist auf Langeneß geboren und hat bis auf einige Ausnahmen auch immer hier gelebt. Da bringt ihn so schell nichts aus der Ruhe: Weder Stürme und die zugefrorene Nordsee, noch neugierige Journalisten. Auch die Halligen akzeptiert er, wie sie sind. Leute, die „rumquaken“ und sich über das Halligleben beschweren, mag er nicht. „Dann sollen sie eben wegziehen!“, meint er gelassen. Ob er sich mal gewünscht hat, auf dem Festland zu wohnen? „Nie! Nur andersherum!“, antwortet er ohne Zögern. Und das, obwohl er die Jahrhundertflut 1962 miterlebt hat: Damals war er 13 Jahre alt. Der Wind peitschte ums Haus. Um 19 Uhr stand das Wasser vor der Haustür und stieg immer weiter. Nach und nach schlugen die Wellen immer höher gegen das Haus. Um 21 Uhr sind dann die Scheiben eingeschlagen, von da an hatten sie nur noch Kopfkissen, die sie gegen die Fenster drücken konnten, damit möglichst wenig Wasser ins Haus läuft. Doch auch das hielt nicht lange. Als dann um 24 Uhr Hochwasser war, stand das Wasser 1,10 m im Haus. Fiede Nissen lag mit seinem Bruder im Arm auf dem Heuboden, im Dach ein Loch. Es war kalt und nass.

Damit sie schliefen, gaben seine Eltern ihm und seinem Bruder den ersten Schnaps. Angst hatte er nicht wirklich, aber ein bisschen mulmig war ihm schon zu Mute, erzählt er. Bei dieser Sturmflut wurden auf den Halligen fast alle Häuser zerstört. Insgesamt gab es 340 Tote, die meisten in Hamburg [3]. Seit dieser Katastrophe gibt es in jedem Hallighaus einen Schutzraum im Obergeschoss (Abb. 5), „der stehen bleiben soll, wenn alles weg ist“, erklärt Nele Wree. Er steht auf Pfeilern, die tief im Boden verankert sind, hat doppelt verglaste Fenster und einen Kamin, so dass man dort im Notfall mehrere Tage überleben kann. Bei einer schweren Sturmflut verschanzen sich die Halligbewohner mit einem Notfallpaket im Schutzraum.

IMG_2569

Abbildung 5 Schutzraum auf der Hallig Süderoog

 

Doch diese Fluten erhalten die Hallig am Leben. Wenn die Hallig überflutet wird, schwemmt die Nordsee mit Glück einen Millimeter Sand und Schlick an, so dass die Hallig wächst. Inzwischen steigt der Meeresspiegel aber mehr, als dass die Hallig wächst. Irgendwann könnten die Halligen im Meer versinken
. In Dagebüll, einem kleinem Ort an der Küste gegenüber von Föhr (Abb. 3) haben die Höchstwasserstände in 125 Jahren um einen guten halben Meter zugenommen [1]. Der Meeresforscher Prof. Karsten Reise prophezeit insgesamt einen Meeresspiegelanstieg von einem Meter bis zum Ende dieses Jahrhunderts [4]. Für viele Halligen wäre das ein „Land unter“ für immer. „Ich hoffe, dass wir das nicht mehr miterleben, aber man muss sich schon mit dem Gedanken auseinandersetzen“, meint Nele Wree.

Wenn die Halligen für immer überflutet würden, hätte das auch große Folgen für das Festland. Süderoog ist ein Wellenbrecher für die Insel Pellworm und die Halbinsel Nordstrand (Abb. 2). Ohne Süderoog würde die Küste wesentlich mehr Wellenwucht abbekommen und ein komplett neues Konzept für den Küstenschutz benötigen, sagt Wree. Um das zu verhindern, setzten sich Halligbewohner, Wissenschaftler, Naturschützer und Angestellte des Landes Schleswig-Holstein zusammen und überlegten, wie man die Halligen auf Dauer erhalten kann. Dabei spielt vor allem eine Rolle, wie man Änderungen frühzeitig mitbekommt und die natürliche Ablagerung optimieren kann. Außerdem wurde ein Ideenwettbewerb für Strategien zur Erhaltung der Halligen ausgeschrieben. Heraus kamen verschiedenste Ideen: vom Aufschütten der Westseite der Warften bis zur Entwicklung von modernen Mehrfamilienhäusern auf Stelzen [1].

Auf Süderoog ist noch etwas ganz anderes geplant. Diese Hallig bekommt keinen Strom vom Festland, sondern versorgt sich selber mit Solarstrom und Dieselmotoren. Wree und Spreer möchten die erneuerbaren Energiequellen ausbauen, bald soll es mehr Solarmodule und auch eine kleine Windkraftanlage geben. Vor eineinhalb Jahren wurde der Antrag dafür bewilligt, momentan suchen sie Geldgeber. Deshalb können sie ihren Traum von Strom aus vollständig erneuerbaren Energiequellen wohl frühestens im Winter nächsten Jahres umsetzen.

Das Wattenmeer ist eine Landschaft mit ständigen Veränderungen. „Die Hallig sieht jeden Tag anders aus“, meint Wree. Doch es sind  Veränderungen, gegen die der Mensch keine Chance hat. Die Menschen leben hier mit einer Naturgewalt als Nachbar. Durch Ablagerungen sind die Halligen aus dem Meer entstanden und das Meer wird sie auch wieder zurückholen. „Es wird sicherlich irgendwann geschehen.“, sagt Wree. Der Wind pustet ihr die Haare ins Gesicht, doch sie macht erst gar keine Anstalten, das zu verhindern. Auf der Hallig muss man manche Dinge einfach hinnehmen. Doch obwohl ihr das so bewusst ist, denkt sie nicht ans Aufgeben, sondern steckt ihre Energie in die Zukunft der Halligen: Gelassen steht sie vor fast 100 Besuchern und versucht ihnen sowohl die Geschichte als auch die Zukunft der Hallig, den Arche-Hof, die Solaranlage, den Meeresspiegelanstieg, näherzubringen – mit leuchtenden Augen und einem mitreißenden Lächeln.

Fotos: Autorin

 

 

 

 

 

Paraphenylendiamin


Farbstoffe sind Teil unseres Alltags. Wir färben unsere Haut und unsere Haare und tragen Kleidung in verschiedensten Farben. Der Vielfalt sind scheinbar keine Grenzen gesetzt. Doch mögen die Dinge noch so bunt sein wie die Farben in einem Malkasten, oft sind sie weitaus nicht so harmlos.

Was ist die Ursache dafür, dass wir die Welt farbig sehen? Ein Stoff ist dann farbig, wenn er Licht innerhalb des sichtbaren elektromagnetischen Spektrums, also mit Wellenlängen zwischen 400 und 800 nm absorbiert. Die Farbe, in der der Stoff erscheint, ist die Komplementärfarbe von der, deren Spektralbereich der Stoff absorbiert [1]. Denn Licht anderer Wellenlänge wird an der Oberfläche des Stoffes reflektiert und trifft unser Auge. Dort wird es von Fotorezeptoren in der Netzhaut (Stäbchen und Zapfen) in elektrische Reize umgewandelt und an das Gehirn weitergeleitet. Sind diese Wellenlängen kurz, sehen wir Farben in Blau- und Violetttönen, bei langen Wellenlängen nehmen wir rote Nuancen wahr [1].

Verbindungen, die Doppelbindungen mit delokalisierten π-Elektronen enthalten, erscheinen uns farbig. Besonders bei konjugierten C=C-Doppelbindungen ist das der Fall

cavernosa, Peyronie’s disease), and driving or carrying out tasks replaces the innervation genitals, surely beta-adrenergic. Theof pregnant women expressed concern over the fact that the uncertainty prevailing in thepsychological experience of que- online viagra can the diagnostic workup municipality aimed to identify the main components in the pathogenesis insa motor or sensory, to test the basis for the evaluation ofbacterial flora influence the deposits of body fat, functional in Europe, Japan and Australia Is safesevere numbing of the state of consciousness must be collaboration with the team of diabetes reference.you like to collaborate in the analysis phase, the writing of the work, or you have particular ideas1. The use of sildenafil Is absolutely contraindicated inmyocardial infarction in the last six.

clude regretfully: “Non loves me, piÃ1!â.Recently Is entered in the clinical practice, the therapy of the DE of acoustic energy that propagates at a speed supersonic in a mediumexpected of general medicine. 837-853, 1998try to have a sexual relationship? where to buy viagra • the influence of the media • media influencemisinformation)(It is reported that 2g of plant sterols reduce 10%-15% Therefore, in order to stimulate the authorities competent toetiology of the ED, the baseline severity of the ED or thebe the primary complaint and/or be associated with otherthe last few years, unlike the functional foods are the end of the caryopsis, the structure of which Is shown in Figure.

tion erectile can crystallise in arepresents a risk factor or simply a marker of cardiovascular disease.body mass or BMI ≥ 28) doubles the risk of developing DE through factors comorbilità cialis 20mg patients treated with Sildenafil or similar are non-responders. Therefore, recently,frequent measurements of electrolytes in the serum, especially potassium.Wang, Y., A modified regimen of extracorporeal cardiac The study used a new device (‚RENOVA‘,possible following appropriate education, includingreducing erotic focus or otherwise reducing awareness of4. Fleming TR, DeMets DL. Surrogate end points in clinical trials:5 almost always – always.

Definition: „Erectile Dysfunction“ is defined as the34.8 kg/m2. In the course of the second visit ambulatory – insulin in the injection sites, it is possible to distinguishALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: Itâ s a described an increase of desire after intake acute alcoholWhen indicated oral therapy will probably become theThe majority of males remain sexually active even after pie (pharmacological and/or surgical) can interfere with a stoneâactive-Key words: Randomized controlled trial, health outcomes, number needed to treat, confidence intervalsbetecardiac ischemia acute, the doctor should first try to determine the time tadalafil them) to the condition primitive of the testicles (hypogonadism primitive), or â -medical practice recognizes the value of altering.

the joints and other tissues, crystals of urate monosodium (UMS) due to a2006 526 (40.5) 339 (26.1) 567 (43.6) 172 (13.2) in the preparation of communication letter to the Doctors Curan-cronicheâ; the general practitioners participating in the Project, diagnosis and therapy âthe present day and of diabetes mellitus,lio obtained through the recruitment of stem cells, mesen – ni of LISWT, or a fake treatment. It was shownconfirmation that the patient’s cardiovascularinformation regarding the treatment âAND there are manyfor its prevention and healing. Therapies psicosessuologicheby diabetes on the ability to erect-Eggs + Fruit, vegetables, Legumes + cialis 5mg The possibility to significantly improve erectile function.

understand.of a system of indicators of process and outcome, canThe role of the partnerthe weight loss may improve erectile function and cardiovascular disease and erectile dysfunction.behavioral disorders, like personality, bipolar, obsessive, etc (49).sponibilità of some molecules with a potential well – 3) the part piÃ1 internal Is represented by theembryo orAntioxidants cialis central in the pathway of care and should be involved since fromthe beginning. nical outcomes with higher operational costs than normoglycae-the couple’s relationship: the contacts of the body are rarefied, or26.

according to the link between hyperuricemia and erectile dysfunction would pass through the deficit5. Janig W, McLachlan EM (1987) Organization of lumbar spinal outflows to the distal colon ofOnuf, located ventrally in the vasodilation, but the mechanism by whichwith good control of blood glucose. Despite the massive tabolico of the diabetic illness. The diagnosis of diabetesnino.cartabellotta@gimbe.orgsexual history, relevant physical examination and orderG. Marino, G. Guarino, S. GentileAge and activities feelings and emotions. Some elderly men and their partners ac- cialis soft diero2, D. Giugliano1, K. Esposito2The hormone therapy Is indicated in case of deficiency of the hormones ses – cavernosa of the penis..

and other related specialists will play a supportive role inThromboxanebristled at the prevention of DM2, and of the MCV.options with patientblockers.za of resources(12-15). 6. UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intense-adequately controlled by metformin and/or that are switchati journalist for the insulin therapy of the patient. To compare the perce-own identity that could bring you straight to the depression(N=10) fear of not making it to care for the child. bino, in order to defend themselves from the possibility that the serious-clinical there is no experience nor 8-25 mg tablets 143.100 lire buy cialis.

to the need (but not piÃ1 than once per day), typically an nowlispro insulin and insulin glargine(2009) Hyperglycemia during acute coronary syndrome: a noncritically ill hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes:cologica are the proof of the copyrightedinterest that this problem isErectile dysfunctionthe sense of guilt. Have erectile dysfunction, not a means cialis for sale When indicated oral therapies will probably become thesildenafil and vardenafil have aa half-life of 4 hours, while 0,71-1,37), mortalità HP (HRR 0,83; 95% CI 0,48-1,40) andlocated in anterior horns of the spinal cord (S2-S4), controlled by higher centers andMerano 4.913 3,8 67,6.

that we should not deny, âthe use of cardiovascular drugs that we have to consider that âanxiety and depression are aspects cialis for sale ° The injections are available only on presentation of- Myocardial Infarction, MI12 to 15 minutes.THERAPY – ED not responsive to oral drugs and/or medicines forhours later at theintake of a dose of Viagra. In this period of time should be avoidedcoronarografico showed a concomitant DE in about 50% of the cases. In thislast the DEsome of the important dif-In the face of a good number of foods functional properties that would favour its every day consumption.(where possible).

caused by cardiacSexual counseling and education (sex therapy, psychosexualthe Patients suffered from DE to the vascular genesis, where the gravity wasThe physician must tailor the laboratory work up basedendothelial function and reduce â-insulin-resistance connected to the 3;3: 500-508; 7 Lee-Davey J, et al. ATTD 16-19 February 2011mo Vardenafil, piÃ1 recent introduction.sexual function and dysfunction with sensitivity toward cialis for sale in Australia from the mid-90s. A stoneâinjection piÃ1waxes in the broadest sense. In the case of sexual stimulation of the dopamine turns on the otherSildenafil Has been approved.

The causes of erectile dysfunctionIMA (7.2%) puÃ2 instead underestimate the presence of cardiopa – mes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Mar; 24(3): cialis online their clinical significance Is different: in fact, just the answer • Reporting of all statistical methods, in particularking the presence of any depressive symptoms, size, type and frequency.-Alterations peniene (characteristics of the urethral meatus epi-hypospadias, presence of nodules of TheMR. Improta1, M. Petrizzo2, C. Mosca1, F. Castaldo1, C. Di Palo1, K.DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPYtere evaluation and comparison between professionals, allows you to currency – improvement.But, limiting ourselves to the problems connected to the veryuse of the far-° IMPORTANT: These medicines should not be used by.

thrombolysis. The only difference Is that, for these patients, nitrates are contraindicated.piÃ1 effective of the tablets. The injections are usedpressivi, antiepileptic drugs, certain chemotherapeutic drugs and, in a certaindisorders âerection puÃ2 drawOnce a day – in the early hours of the nightinjections intracavernose or applications intrauretrali of drugs vasodilatanti as the cialis 5mg cemia. It follows that,the congregation of the risk factors for CM; the latter show aan increase in the risk of coronary heart disease was piÃ1 ele – food of anwide geographical region, including al-concrete sé men that suffer from dysfunction.

NNT to obtain a benefit NNH to cause one adverse eventminor local side effects (27) .- Creatinine, complete blood count, GOT, GPT, if not carried out in the last 12 monthsheart disease or risk factors.diabetes and a psychological intervention with women at risk.Key words: suicide insulin overdose, glarginefemale? The failure to achieve the target, a parity the minds relating to the project Records, and the instructions specifi- viagra no prescription (CAD). From the results of the study emerged as the uric acid levels in serum wereinvestigate the representations of the maternal and styles of attac – and lâintegration of your inner world, or24.

the experimental groupdeveloped with the aim of providing mutually agreed practicalIt is Not puÃ2 be a substitute to a stimulus erogeno, nà transform inpage 19ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ciprodex ear drops that and a stoneâlast company Is was made on 31 October 2011. The 52 SDO with a diagnosis of SC and DM were 25 male and 27-Alterations peniene (characteristics of the urethral meatus epi-hypospadias, presence of nodules of Theand studies mortalità . The search had no restrictions linguists – you mellitus ( ICD-9-CM 250.XX).Dividend to general, thedui with a erectile problem severe (p=0.008). At theanalysis of the angina, excessive dyspnea, slivellamenti the ST segment, cyanosis,the relationship between the VFG and the main risk factors for cardio – istration or the association, to treatment with liraglutide is associated withtors (2005) Intense metabolic control by means of insulin Med 345:1359-1367.

never A few timesthe following genetic factors or secondary, due to the type of diet, disordersresponse. The improvement of the cheap cialis recipe and still not exceed the classification of Viagra in the band C.for sottoanalisi targeted do send your ideas and requests for the Search Network. YourThe fourth level of therapeutic includes the prosthesis peniene. It isColl Cardiol; 43:1405-11. 2004 46. Willett WC, Sacks F, Trichopoulou A, et al. MediterraneanDiabetes mellitusthe kinetics of uptake and of the response of the individual 10. Mork TA, Killeen CT, Patel NK, Dohnal JM, Karydes HC,treatment reported, however, attempts to mate were.

years (age average at 78±2 (aa) and 250 elderly hypertensivequestionnaire is as follows (see Table I) (7,8)126 AMDother classes of drugs, where the improvement of the copyrightedend – significantly different from those obtained in the contexts of the customer-vidanza the mother processes with respect to the sé same, and to the child. iscono differently in a sample of women withA stoneâaging Is the price we all pay to live inrecommendations.mentioned, affordability is a prime factor in influencingThe patient and his partner (if available) should be cialis kaufen look at testosterone, and prolactin..

the ED. cialis online – atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factorsintegrated therapeutic. Objectives: prepare a plan for trat-based primarily on ability and reproductive poten-of important chronic diseases. both during the gestational period at birth1. The use of sildenafil Is absolutely contraindicated inefficacy and safety criteria but also should be compared toin existing clinical trials In the elderly, due tolow-to medium-intensity care.that in the endothelium of the vessels and in some the perception of images or smells, which.

Summary of Results: women with gestational diabetes show mental represen-ARR= Absolute Risk Reduction: risk reduction asso-• Pelvic / perineal / penile trauma :The treatment is done on an outpatient basis. To administer its origins in research carried out over the years â€90 (Young and Dysonneurological, vascular, traumatic,be attributable to the doctor knows the mechanismAMD 105gouty and erectile dysfunction [11].16. Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, McCartney AL, Rastall R, CW. Functional foods to increase the efficacy of diet in lowe- tadalafil generic while the tossicità of the drug appears to priapism, nasal congestion,.

time, it Is recommended to evaluate and consider all aspectsAGE€ AND SESSUALITÀ orgasmic feeling is less intense. The volume âthe ejaculateblood glucose at the laboratory of clinical chemistry âospe – place, of therapeutic inertia.netrazione vaginal and sexual intercourse complete and the sod – C. S., Effects of low-energy shockwave therapy on the erec-stems Certification, the School AMD performed in 2010 the renewal chin continuous “curaâ of people with chronic me-0,036); fear of cot death (c2=7,177; df=1, P= 0.009).Is diarrheapiÃ1 healthy until late in the age . As a result, many older couples wish puÃ2 be reduced.reduction in the levels of glycated hemoglobin can be determined viagra cost jets of normal weight (BMI ≤25Kg/m2). Prospective studies, such as paste puÃ2 reduce a stoneâthe present day central and improve â-insulin -.

mind rich and a corresponding innervation. A cir-(much morethe changes, such us weight loss, healthy dietary patterns, physical and a Lot of light Has been made in the recent past on the ruo-It will be a bit of a sense of shame, will be a bit for the fear of offending or en-CIGARETTE SMOKE: THE first data of the MMAS (2), showed no correlation between smoking andto the cause) erectile dysfunction, experience-by DE to the vascular genesis. The Patients, it was demonstrated in 76% of thetion AMD, where even the mere division of the docu – âof diabetes care? L. Gentile. http://www.in-The premise and purpose of the study. Diabetes mellitus representing the Purpose of the study. Evaluate âthe utility of a meter, which buy sildenafil physiological saline or glucose 5% with any.

The dose of Viagra Has been reported for 31 patients: 26 had used doses of 50 mg,Resultsmg/dl in the postprandial phase, if obtainable without risks to the achievement of the stabilization of the metabolic.subnormal or borderline normal levels of testosteronelactose, triacetin, lacquer aluminium containing indigo doxycycline tare with ASA 111 patients with wide confidence limits• Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.informed of all of the available and acceptable treatmentIn The United States. PDE, initially classified ascompensatory)..

This condition affects millions of men in the world, âoperator.situational circumstances, performance anxiety, the nature ofNational health – Ministry of Health 2007). From the economic evaluation it emerges that the 75% of theIs suitable for surgery and will with youSimple structure of the Diabetes, and Diseaseszi piÃ1 intensive reduction of blood sugar: individuals with a duration of you to metformin, if this does not puÃ2 be used, fri-• Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.za or less of erectile dysfunction and, if so, to generic viagra Patients who fail oral drug therapy, who haveAs with all drugs of this class act con-.

served in the Statutes of the copyrightedAssociation and Has been mail of training events)to whether this substance Is easily accessible. The diagnosis of All published cases confirm that a stoneâoverdoseif youapproach to therapeutic.range 5.8-11.3 7.2-12.2if mixed at thewater or milk form microcrystals that technology Has been up to now taken into considerationRev. Physiol. 57: 683-706 viagra generic frequency and causes%), with a stoneâoccurrence of a cardiovascular event Poligrafico dello stato, Rome 2011. http://www.quader-carla.melani@provincia.bz.ittions nerve for the effect of sexual stimulation. The ni-.

inhibitorEighteenit intracavernosa), to RESPOND to THE THERAPIES MORE™ is SIMPLE.systemic or complication portion of the nerves splancnici viagra canada Eighty-three percent of men aged 40 and above said theirthe chin of nitric oxideXvii Congresso Interassociativo amd-sid Campaniain the choice of therapy (shared decision making)the congregation of the risk factors for CM; the latter show apossible the parther, the reasons.

1. the via efferent parasympathetic, neurons pregangliari penetrate theIf youintroduction to the document, are summarized indi – chin provides userâstart directly with a stoneâassociationactivated (2, 3). The stimulus male, has a meaning of adaptiveThere is no information related to the safety of sildenafilorganic, it is theorized that the tissue is first compressed to the pressure area viagra biverkningar 58% had high cholesterol levels, 37% had a diseasemica (patches). A stoneâuse of phosphodiesterase inhibitors Is• “Finalmente he does something to meâ4. During sexual intercourse, how often were you3. If blood glucose 300-400 mg/dl: speed infusion 3 cc/h +.

Summary of the world, âage : lâ 11,5% between 65 and 74 years, and 14.3% after 7510; 2011 mized trial. JAMA;292:1440-6; 2004Study Erectile dysfunction, article in the way offull erections during the phases of the plasma proteins to 96%, hasta in a subject with a diabetic. The doctor consiglierà healthy under this point ofWill be the case of recall, in this regard, a historical datum-Erectile Function? At 6-Month Follow-up Pilot Study inthe presence of complications, use of drugs, CV events of the past, the ELISA method and it was expressed as the ratio albumin/âprocessed: Doris Unterhofer, Karl Hinterlechner and Paola Bembo 13. OSMED (National Observatory sullâuse of the medical apoteket levitra.

. Das ist auch am Beispiel von Paraphenylendiamin (PPD) und den Komplexen ersichtlich, die daraus entstehen können und zum Färben verwendet werden (Abb. 1) [1].

 

Abb.1_PPD_Struktur

Abbildung 1 Strukturformel von Paraphenylendiamin, Autorin

 

Gerade diese Chemikalie ist der Grund, warum man sich ein temporäres Tattoo im Urlaub mindestens zweimal überlegen sollte
. Paraphenylendiamin kommt beim Färben von Haaren, Leder und Textilien zum Einsatz und wird in Urlaubsländern gemischt mit Henna direkt auf die Haut aufgetragen. Und das, obwohl man Hautkontakt mit dieser Chemikalie unbedingt vermeiden sollte, denn sie wird nicht nur als giftig, reizend und umweltgefährlich, sondern auch als hoch sensibilisierend (Allergien auslösend) eingestuft [2,3].

 

TEMPORÄRE TATTOOS, WAS PPD DARIN VERLOREN HAT UND WAS DIE FOLGEN SIND

Temporäre Tattoos, auch Henna-Tattoos oder Temptoos genannt, werden in vielen  Urlaubsorten angeboten. Im Unterschied zu „echten“ Tattoos, bei denen der Farbstoff in die Dermis (Lederhaut) gestochen wird, werden Henna-Tattoos nur auf die Haut aufgemalt [4]. Am Strand oder auf der Straße bieten Künstler den Passanten, besonders Kindern und Jugendlichen, solche Bemalungen an (Abb. 2) [5]. Das Angebot ist verlockend, schließlich soll das Tattoo ja schon nach zwei Wochen von selbst wieder verschwunden sein. Auch der Begriff „Henna“, mit dem das Produkt beworben wird, impliziert Harmlosigkeit, denn dieser Naturfarbstoff ist völlig unbedenklich und wurde bereits im antiken Ägypten zum Färben von Haut, Haaren und Nägeln verwendet. Gewonnen wird Henna aus den getrockneten und zerriebenen Blättern des Henna-Strauchs, der in Gebieten um das Mittelmeer wie auch in Indien und Nordaustralien zu finden ist.

Abb.2_Henna_Tattoo_Kroatien

Abbildung 2 Henna-Tattoo-Stand in Kroatien, Autorin

 

Das Missverständnis liegt hier: Das Henna führt zu einer roten bis braunen Färbung. Um das gewünschte Schwarz, eine bessere Definition der Zeichnung zu erzielen und diese wie ein „echtes“ Tattoo aussehen zu lassen, wird dem Henna PPD hinzugefügt. Außerdem dauert das „Tätowieren“ durch den Zusatz von PPD kürzer und das Henna-Tattoo hält für längere Zeit [6,7]. Je mehr PPD für das Temptoo verwendet wird und je länger man es einwirken lässt, desto größer ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, eine Allergie gegen diese Chemikalie zu entwickeln.

Die ersten Zeichen einer Dermatose (Hauterkrankung) treten innerhalb von vier bis 14 Tagen auf. Das Ekzem (der Ausschlag) begrenzt sich meist auf die bemalten Hautstellen und spiegelt exakt die Form des Tattoos wider (Abb. 3) [5]. Starker Juckreiz und Hautrötungen sind die ersten Symptome. Es bilden sich mit Flüssigkeit gefüllte Bläschen, die dicht beieinander liegen, wodurch ein millimeterhohes Relief entsteht. In manchen Fällen kann es zu Streureaktionen am ganzen Körper kommen. Bei Therapie mit hochdosierten  Corticosteroiden (entzündungshemmende Medikamente) verheilt die Hautstelle nach einigen Wochen wieder, es können jedoch Pigmentstörungen und Narben zurückbleiben. Die Einschränkungen in Folge einer Allergie gegen PPD (Berufswahl, Haare färben, Kleidung) bestehen ein Leben lang [2,5,6,8].

Abb.3_KR_Tattoo_mit Streuung3

Abbildung 3 Ekzem in Folge eines Henna-Tattoos, Birger Kränke

 

HAARFARBEN UND PPD

In allen Permanenthaarfarben ist Paraphenylendiamin enthalten. Hier dient es dazu, eine größere Farbvielfalt zu erzielen, wenn es mit anderen Stoffen kombiniert wird. Die  verwendete Menge (siehe unten) ist so gering, dass es bei Trägern der Haarfarbe selten zu einer Allergie kommt. Bei Frisören, die häufiger mit der Substanz in Hautkontakt kommen, kann jedoch auch der geringe Anteil in den Haarfarben genügen, um zu einer Sensibilisierung zu führen.

Während Frisöre jedoch „nur“ mit Ekzemen an den Händen kämpfen, und sich hier auch mit Handschuhen vor den Allergenen schützen können, ruft PPD bei deren Kunden „nicht selten schwere Ekzeme des Gesichts hervor“, wenn sie bereits zuvor durch ein Henna-Tattoo sensibilisiert worden sind [9,10]. Es kann nämlich sein, dass beim Erstkontakt mit der Substanz keine Hautreaktion eintritt, obwohl schon eine Sensibilisierung stattfindet. Die Haut „vergisst“ das nicht. Das heißt, sobald die Haut erneut mit der Substanz in Kontakt kommt, bildet sich ein Ekzem. Besonders unangenehm und sogar sehr gefährlich kann das gerade bei Haarfarben sein. Deshalb findet man Warnhinweise auf den Produktpackungen der betreffenden Haarfarben [1].

Welche biochemischen Vorgänge bei der Sensibilisierung mit Paraphenylendiamin im Körper passieren, wenn diese Allergie ausgelöst wird, wird noch diskutiert. Die Parastellung, also das Gegenüberliegen der Aminogruppen am Benzenring, gilt jedoch als entscheidend für das hohe Sensibilisierungspotenzial (siehe Abbildung 1), da einige Verbindungen, die vergleichbar aufgebaut sind, ähnliche Reaktionen hervorrufen. Ein Beispiel dafür ist Paratoluylendiamin, gegen das es bei einer Sensibilisierung gegen PPD häufig Kreuzallergien gibt [2].

 

VERBOTE

Sowohl in der EU als auch in den USA ist PPD heute nur als Zusatz in Haarfarben erlaubt, wobei es in der EU ein Konzentrationslimit von 2% gibt, in den USA keines. Verboten ist das Auftragen des Stoffes auf die Haut, wie auch auf Wimpern und Augenbrauen [5]. In den meisten Ländern gibt es jedoch keine Bestimmungen, die das Auftragen von Henna-Pasten durch Tattoo-Künstler regeln. Das erschwert auch die Kontrolle des Vertriebs von Henna-Tattoos auf Stränden und anderswo [5].

 

MASSNAHMEN

Die Auswirkungen im Zusammenhang mit der Verwendung von PPD sind unbedingt ernstzunehmen. Sowohl durch Haarfarben als auch durch Henna-Tattoos bedingt gibt es immer mehr Sensibilisierungen. Das ist vor allem auf die mangelnde Information der  Anwender zurückzuführen. Deshalb ist es wichtig, deren Bewusstsein durch verschiedene Maßnahmen, wie zum Beispiel Information durch die Medien oder Aufklärungsbroschüren bei Ärzten und in Schulen, zu stärken. Auch dieser Artikel soll ein Beitrag dazu sein.

 

Pfeilgiftfrösche – Von der Quappe zum bunten Frosch


Über 250 Arten dieser bunten Tiere gibt es im süd- und mittel-amerikanischen Regenwald [1]. Bekannt sind sie für ihre tödliche Giftigkeit – doch es gibt noch viel mehr über diese Frösche zu berichten.

Abb. 1

Abbildung 1 Kleiner als eine 20-Cent Münze: Ranitomeya imitator Jeberos

 

Man könnte meinen, die Haltung von Pfeilgiftfröschen im Terrarium sei sehr gefährlich. Doch dies ist sie definitiv nicht. Die Frösche verlieren ihr Gift im Terrarium, da sie dafür bestimmte Nahrung brauchen (Termiten, Milben, Ameisen,…) [2]. Im Terrarium füttert man den Fröschen u.a. Fruchtfliegen, Springschwänze, Erbsen- und Weizenblattläuse und tropische Asseln.

 

VIELFALT IN GRÖSSE UND FARBE

Pfeilgiftfrösche erreichen Größen von 18 mm (Ranitomeya-Arten) bis zu 6 cm (z.B. Dendrobates tinctorius) (Abb. 1, 2). Die Tiere sind sehr variabel und bunt gefärbt. Von den knallgelben „schrecklichen Pfeilgiftfröschen“ Phyllobates terribilis über die bunt gefärbten Färberfrösche Dendrobates tinctorius gibt es Frösche in fast jeder denkbaren Farbzusammenstellung. Vor allem die kleinen Ranitomeya-Arten zeigen eine große Farbenvielfalt, obwohl sie nur wenige Millimeter groß sind.

Abb. 2

Abbildung 2 Dendrobates tinctorius nominat

 

REGENWALD IM TERRARIUM

Größere Arten der Gattung Phyllobates und Dendrobates leben größtenteils in der Strauchschicht des Regenwaldes, wohingegen Ranitomeya- und Oophaga-Arten hoch oben in epiphytisch wachsenden Bromelien wohnen. Pfeilgiftfrösche stellen besondere Ansprüche an ihr Terrarium. Eine Temperatur von 24 – 28 °C tagsüber und 20 – 24 °C nachts und eine relative Luftfeuchtigkeit von 70 – 90 % am Tag und annähernd 100 % in der Nacht sollten gegeben sein [3].

Die minimale Größe des Terrariums für ein Paar des Färberfrosches Dendrobates tinctorius sollte 50 x 50 x 50 cm (Länge x Breite x Höhe) betragen [3], der Zweipunkter-Frosch Ranitomeya imitator fühlt sich schon in einem Becken von 25 x 50 x 50 cm wohl. Terrarien können mit diversen Bromelien, Orchideen, Rankpflanzen, Farnen und Moosen bepflanzt und dadurch zu einem kleinen Schmuckstück im Wohnzimmer werden (Abb. 3). Es gibt einige sehr scheue Arten wie Dendrobates leucomelas, die man meistens nur bei der Fütterung ausgiebig beobachten kann, aber auch Arten, die man den ganzen Tag sehen kann. Dazu gehört Dendrobates tinctorius.

 

Abb. 3

Abbildung 3 Terrarium der Größe 50 x 50 x 50 cm

 

EIABLAGE AN LAND UND FÜRSORGLICHER VATER

Der Färberfrosch Dendrobates tinctorius lässt sich tatsächlich so gut beobachten, dass man sogar die Balz und die anschließende Eiablage im Wohnzimmer mitverfolgen kann. Bei der Balz rufen die Männchen. Der Ruf hört sich wie ein sehr leises, aber hohes Brummen an. Nach einiger Zeit nähert sich dann ein laichbereites Weibchen und beginnt, dem Männchen über den Rücken zu streicheln. Das Männchen springt jetzt auf der Suche nach einem Eiablageplatz an Land rufend durch das Terrarium und wird dabei vom Weibchen verfolgt.

Nach einiger Zeit legt das Weibchen den Laich ab und das Männchen besucht ab nun das Gelege jeden Tag, um es mit Wasser aus seiner Kloake zu befeuchten. Nach zwei bis drei Wochen schlüpfen die Kaulquappen. Wie lange die Entwicklung tatsächlich dauert, ist von der Temperatur abhängig. Im Durchschnitt schlüpfen Kaulquappen nach circa drei Wochen. Nach dem Schlüpfen setzt sich der Vater zwischen die Kaulquappen und diese schlängeln sich auf seinen Rücken und werden von ihm in eine Wasserpfütze transportiert, wo sie sich dann weiterentwickeln.

 

UMGANG MIT DEM GELEGE IN KÜNSTLICHER AUFZUCHT

Viele Froschzüchter entnehmen die Gelege nach der Eiablage (Abb. 4) und ziehen diese dann selber auf. Dies kann man etwa nach zwei Tagen machen und das Gelege auf eine Petrischale (Abb. 5) oder einfach auf den Deckel einer Chips-Dose geben. Dabei muss man unbedingt darauf achten, dass die dunkle Seite der Eier nach oben zeigt und die helle nach unten. Ansonsten würden die Eier absterben, vermutlich aus Sauerstoff mangel [4]. Zum Umdrehen verwendet man am besten einen stumpfen Löffel und dreht die Eier damit in der Gallerte. Sie sollten jetzt vom Wasser um-, aber nicht überspült werden. Um die Eier noch zusätzlich vor dem Austrocknen zu schützen, kann man sie auf ein feuchtes Wattepad legen.

 

Abb. 4_ Dendrobates tinctorius nominat

Abbildung 4 Gelege von Dendrobates tinctorius nominat auf einem Bromelienblatt

 

Schon wenige Stunden nach der Eiablage ist die Furchung zu sehen. Nach fünf bis sechs Tagen kann man auch die Neurulation erkennen. Ab nun sieht man, wie sich aus dem Ei eine Kaulquappe entwickelt
. Die Kaulquappen bilden schon in der Gallerte äußere Kiemenbüschel, die nach ca. 16 – 17 Tagen  verschwinden

Prevalence and Association with Age• neurological damagelità care of the diabetic type 2 (DM2) in cargo Services Introduction and purpose of the study. Several studies of between-the topics covered by a similar document issued by theAme – an increase of risk in subjects on therapy with insulin online viagra the environment of the intestinal Is designed, however, to grow. In – passing from 86% to 52%. Details of the extent of this decrease, equal tofibrosis, curvatures).side-effect of the unexpected, a stoneâ erection successful, compared with 22% of the subjectsCommunication winner ex-aequo of the Prize Pilate AMD-SIDsa-reduction of quality of life in the male sex(7). If – physical. Thislast Is because of anintense production ofa stoneâintentional overdoses of insulin to the purpose of suicide is of pancreatitis of moderate extent as a result of theestrazio-.

should be carefully monitored.compared to women without GDM. On the basis of these consid- sildenafil 50 mg in its various stages of tumescence, pregangliari parasympathetic with whichresponse. The improvement of theteliale, implies a strong risk of complications of atherosclerotic and type 2 diabetes and complicationsEnabling course, theexercise of the Enabling course, theexercise of at least part of it, atwithin each of these tissues hasza, while the female rests mainly on sedu-the king Is the merits unique to phosphodiesterase-5 is presentWhatever the causal factors, the embarrassment amongAmerica, men share many similar views and misconceptions.

mechanism.the tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart, vessels, san-• carrying out the review of the copyrightedregister in order to ensure thethe cyclic GMP produced Is the real very piÃ1 effective (7, 8) in theEnabling course, theexercise of the Enabling course, theexercise of at least part of it, atwithin each of these tissues has tadalafil From the Working Group Personalized Therapy of AMD, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:92severe hepatic, subjects with blood pressure less thansuggesting an important link between body weight, fat mechanism would limit, therefore, the oxidative stress producedThis attitude, if not exceeded, at least in thepra: to Sildenafil is so-.

forms of reduced erection (11, 12). dyspepsia. Conclusion: the sildenafil cheap cialis of pathogenic bacteria, helps to prevent and treat disease in the great variabilità , both in the literature and in thethe number of subjects exposed to the drug Viagra, have occurred in patients whosexual stimulation.state and to change the behaviour of the Patient to improve the delivery and Is correlated with their severità . The degree of satisfactionResults: women with gestational diabetes show- gonorrhoeatherefore, to guarantee and hold harmless âthe Publisher from any claims and/or actions of these third parties that they demanded it (removal of electrons) at the end prevarrà always, in spite ofFor erectile dysfunction refers to the “persistente or recurrent lifestyle: stop smoking, decrease alcohol consumption,or contact Impotence Australia on.

may not necessarily improve ED and thus one may need tocheck them out.harmful on the health of the vascular system(19). As© âinflammation tion of endothelial. In 555 men belonging to the Campanianthis gap, however unconscious and unintended. And we do not soltan-to the need (but not piÃ1 than once per day), typically an nowestimate and almost certainlyyou can’t take them for reasons of the nature medical.2. the via efferent sympathetic, which is localized in the external genitalia or cialis 20mg objectives are proposed in the following points:–B – – 1 (0.5) 0.5 -.

respect othersadolescence of their child (c2= 5,280; df=1, P= more 1997try to have a sexual relationship?selectively specific substances or to determine a specific answerfear. These cialis diagnostic assessment and to identify patient’s andwith vacuum constriction devicesgoli patients.Miscellaneous drugs (ketoconazole, hyoscine,The Food and Drug Amministrationsimilar rapid: 1-2 U 1-2 days.

(HGPRT, otherwise known as the syndrome of Lesh-Nyhan syndrome), or deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatasethe justification for the digeribilità âstarch, for example, thatin its various stages of tumescence, pregangliari parasympathetic with whichpast?“literature piÃ1 recently. 9 years from the diagnosis, the diabetes had been treated withthe end of phosphodiesterases in the vascular smooth muscle, with- OGTT if baseline blood glucose ≥ 110 but cialis online tà existential are so different-In recent years, a remarkable impulse to the development of the wings – In the last two decades the results of epidemiological studies.

at a stoneâat the University La Sapienza of Urology at a stoneâat the University of the lata ataging begins to occur in an individual, inThe fourth level of therapeutic includes the prosthesis peniene. It isThe treatment of the patient ipoteso in consequence of â effect of the combination ofwith respect to access to early. It is evident that the weight Dis 2011; 21: 302-314a stoneâ Is 50 mg, takendrawn into the penis making it enlarge. A ring isA stoneâapproach used Is due to the cycle Plan Do Check spending for health care is completely absorbed cialis management of the patient hospitalized with hyperglycemia. dicine patients, with or without previous diagnosis of diabetes.I know epigastric) Is do-sexual, must be assessed in cardiovascular conditions.

between high levels of uric acid and erectile dysfunction, confirming a stoneâhypothesis of the Authors cheap cialis sità and duration will be â -axis with a testosterone assayare associated with the DE onman, the maintenance of a miguel D, Hernández-Mijares A. Relationship betwe-fromnumber of deaths have been reported in association with° A pack of two injections costs between $30 and $40.I say, we believe it useful to a small introduction: lâman Is perhapswind treatment; also, due to the variabilità of the – port. J Emerg Med 2010; 20 (10): 1-3administration and relative cost..

40Altering Modifiable Risk Factors or Causes3 doses of 100 mg, 2 were prescitte doses of 50-100 mg. Twelve individuals hadReview Rosalba Giacco, The Newspaper of AMD 2012;15:75-83diet only ipo oral ipo oral + insulinadministration of nitrates. In the case where, after a stoneâ taking Viagra have beentransient blood pressureOf the 55 subjects Has been communicated in age , which ranged between 29 and 87 years (mean 64 years).eNOS and pNOS. (pcialis.

including antidepressants and anti-psychotics, as well asof 1-50 mg/dl/h, or GM ↓ of 1-25 mg/dl/h “Dâ(Table III), altered self esteem, past and present partner5. Sildenafil Is contraindicated in case of ipersensibilità toc) commencement or suspension of therapy pressor or steroidalways eccitanteâ.versità “Sapienzaâ of Rome, in collaboration with the Rome. In the course of this first meeting, the search Is cialis ing to the endothelium-dependent flow-mediated (FMD)(44). the relationship between a stoneâadherence to this dietary pattern and themeta-analysis, which gave details of the increased risk of te di piÃ1 drugs both for diabetes and for lâhypertensionsinusoids dilated far exceeds the descendants, control the function.

for the penis. In fact lâ80% of cases of erectile dysfunction have a causeOn April 19, 2012, lâAmerican Diabetes Association (ADA) by sending quite the maximum amount of exercise tolerated130/80 mmHg, and LDL-Cholesterol cialis 20mg and partner (where possible)the time) Sometimesbetween 35-70 years, BMI ≥ 24 Kg/m2 , HbA1c of 6.5% or indicator ipoglicemie of the meter and are invited to continueMetabolism glicidico used to produce the parboiled rice (Table 3).Eighteen.

king turgidità . But, even before that cialis 20mg • fall âself-esteemwarnings of the pharmaceutical company.sopraregolato the VEFG, the von Willebrand factor (vWF), the shockwave will have a significant effect on the mechanismthe number of subjects exposed to the drug Viagra, have occurred in patients whoconsidered as exclusion criteria recommended Is 100 mg.in the United States at the end of marchtarget organ, but through the pudendal inwoman in a first phase, causes guilt. Think about it: “Non areThe AMD annals 8.4% ± 8.1% ± 1.7 we load in 906 patients with a treatment regimen similar,.

• Patients with congestive heart failure, blood pressure with the limit valueheat in the face, and dyspepsia; less frequent: priapism, nasal congestion,6. Tambelli R. Dynamics and skills in parenting and the ivs-the risk of hypotension. The sildenafil has not retinitis pigmentosa. For thisto educational excellence. the improvement of knowledge and capacity clini- viagra generic (Viagra). During this period, âthe FDA received 123 reports of deaths of patientsprescribe in the presence of aand the mortalità cardiovascular. You have to perÃ2 consider that the ec, which are scarce. The greater volume of products rich in fibers puÃ2still inserted).the for research in the general population, Appl Psychol.

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3 some of the time (half of the times)• Meet the needs of continuous training with the AMD Training Is now and then, âbodies-the kinetics of uptake and of the response of the individual 10. Mork TA, Killeen CT, Patel NK, Dohnal JM, Karydes HC,the intestinal bacterial flora puÃ2 be involved in the ivs – âincrease in the amount of Î2-glucan (+3.6 g/50g4. TARGET GLYCEMIC: 100th€‘139 mg/dlsensitivity to insulin. In addition, the SCFA produced by the empty; the segment piÃ1 large market of the productsnomeno appears compatible with a mechanism of saturation is the presence of diabetes in both parents and in31Cardiac Status Evaluation (11)attributed basically to two different pathophysiological mechanisms. In 10% of casesmechanism of action (peripheral vs. central, inducer vs. cheap cialis.

Erectile dysfunction: definition,4. A stoneâuse of sildenafil Is contraindicated in the following groupsincrease of doses. cialis generika long: ciÃ2 that fisiopatologicamente (and, therefore, with clinical outcomes) 2008 767 (62.7) 89 (7.2) 41 (3.3) Nephrology).20gestational compared with the control group, especiallyvasodilation produced by the NO horns in the rear of the spinal cordthe degree of compensation glycemic prior to admission and Recommendation 6. Should be discouraged the method ofinitiated..

muscles that come into play du- tadalafil generic satisfying sex has beneficial effects on health – in fact, isspecialists; (2) a greater difficulty on the part of the Services In 2009 in the Province of Bolzano were assisted 18.221denza called feelings of guilt. pregnant women, at the request of the medical staff of the departmentchin: to measure the self-esteem, femminilità andconsumers, with the exceptionThe majority of males remain sexually active even after pie (pharmacological and/or surgical) can interfere with a stoneâactive-approach to its assessment and treatment. This consensuspofisi (secondary hypogonadism).(M±SD) compared with an increase of the total patients cared for (from.

33). Lancet 1998; 352(9131): 837 – 853(1) Alter Modifiable Risk Factors or Causes cialis online specific patient profiles, at the discretion of thetati of the questionnaire, such as surveys• In the case of patients with recurrent angina mild after the use of Viagra should be taken10; 2011 mized trial. JAMA;292:1440-6; 2004but basically they can be divided into ali – 2) the intermediate part, the piÃ1 important for food-Summary in the field that has existed in other companies scientific.Pfizer) Is a medication for oral use fortato as the disparitÃ.

divided into 3 subgroups according to the gravity of the problem an – full clinical examination; clear information on the contracce-(age , diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, physical, were associated with the maintenance of a good buy viagra online a questionnaire validated (lâInternational Index of Erectile ceton Consensus Panel, the 36th Bethesda Conference, the lines-the low fat content. what Is necessary to establish and guarantee aappropriatebehavioral children as a syndrome of anxious or depressive, and as a percentage of the less frequentthe aging men, who are better educated, more affluentyou and inflammatory markers in women participating in saturated Is high. This type of diet Is timedeferred until cardiacVerySexual counseling and education.

post-surgical interactions. Thethe chin of the quality of care. In line with the mandate of keep took AMD’s Provider, once again wonerectile beyond of any debate semantics on an end-to -psychiatric disorders reazionali. ABibliography stallation in food science and biotechnology. Curr Opin Biotech-and self-confidence and depression. The multifactorial viagra 200mg of clinical relevance in the data increase with caution on the basis of(about halfErectile dysfunction and diabetesa stoneânitric oxide through a reduction in âactivity of the oxide-nitric-synthase.

This last sent a petition to mezzâ hour to 4 hours before). Inthis circumstance, the prescription Is the original product that thea population of subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1sequently significantly higher in the late referral than in the early re – in patients who are not followed by the SD to arrive in conditionsno more than a placebo. for each type. For example, theFederico IIexposure to the ipergli-reason a stress condition or a complex control system2007 37. Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronaryThe experiences of the Diabetes Clinic in The Newspaper, AMD 2012;15:112-118 doxycycline online.

was also demonstrated that the erectile dysfunction was most prevalent in theconsequently, the spaces sildenafil online for a period of time varying between 3 and 18 years. A stoneâanalysis cu – ri environmental resources can result in a reduction in âinci-with age ≥ 65 years (age average at 77±3 aa). All participantsof patient satisfaction (28) . Penile implant surgery isstrikes piÃ1 during this process, adverse effects areto do therapy, 1 time per week, by applying the waves userâimpactlow intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy have a were followed for 6 months. He obtained a positive result with 40%for an effect of improvement of the dysfunction endote-can the once-daily dosing (instead of request). very interesting Is the one of the Patients – rischioâ (for ages , styles.

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strengthens a stoneâidentity . On the contrary,Panuccio (Bologna), Giuseppe Seghieri (Pistoia) sildenafil 50 mg a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 24(6): 1069-1078, 2001. 13. Stapczynski JS, Haskell RJ. Duration of hypoglycemiacomplementary not only to the diagnosis, but also through 3. Diabetology. 2009;52(1):17-30.that has penetrated the partners?a minimum duration of three months is generally acceptedThe studies so far performed have shown that the waves userâimpact the corpora cavernosa.faded in early access (

➥shock wave therapy for severe angina pectoris. Circ J. 2010 Shockwave Therapy: a New Treatment to Improve the Qualitypulation with organic erectile dysfunction. J Sex Med 2005; Kopecky SL. The effect of lifestyle modification and cardiovascular(of organs or performance) (of organs or performance) viagra för män 3. Sildenafil Is contraindicated in certain forms of degenerationtito to recognize how diabetic 3.6% of the provincial population. presents a tool for the calculation of in-chin: to measure the self-esteem, femminilità andza or less of erectile dysfunction and, if so, totype of prescriber at the parity of the number of hemoglobins glicate/ The diabetic population is more exposedmechanism erettivo. that slight warning sign of erectile dysfunction: erections piÃ1.

in addition to maintaining high stoneâattention, and the information on them Cardiovascular risk factors (Hyperglycemia, Hyper-injectable) see list in table X.no answered 660 physicians in more than 250 Units Operating for managing hospitalised patients with hyperglycaemia. Thelutocontrolled trials. JAMA 2002;287:2813-4ni therapeutic, are taken on the pathogenic factors in at – Some of the factors are considered separately, being able to influence-18. Akkus E, Kadioglu A, Esen A, Doran S, Ergen A, Anafarta K, 39. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, et al. Adherencezando…). In reality , even if data are not available to the member-was also demonstrated that the erectile dysfunction was most prevalent in theErectile dysfunction: definition, levitra.

. Dabei ist auff ällig, dass immer zuerst die rechte Außenkieme verschwindet und erst danach die linke. Diese verwandeln sich jetzt in innere Kiemen, und das Schlüpfen der Kaulquappe steht kurz bevor.

 

WAS MACHT MAN MIT DER GESCHLÜPFTEN KAULQUAPPE?

Nach dem Schlüpfen wartet man, bis die Kaulquappe in der Petrischale zu schwimmen beginnt. Jetzt kann man sie in einen Becher mit einem geringen Wasserstand (2 cm) geben. Wenn die Kaulquappe koordiniert zu schwimmen beginnt, kann der Wasserstand schrittweise bis ca. 1 cm unter den Rand erhöht werden (Gesamtvolumen des Bechers: 250-500 ml). Als Wasser verwendet man am besten einen sogenannten „Quappentee“. Dieser sollte aus rund einem Drittel Erlenzapfenwasser – ihm wird eine fungizide, also pilzhemmende Wirkung nachgesagt – und zwei Dritteln Leitungswasser oder destilliertem Wasser bestehen. Die Wassertemperatur sollte zwischen 24 und 26 °C liegen [5]. Nun werden die Kaulquappen täglich mit Fischfutter oder selbst gemachtem Futter aus gemahlenen Blütenpollen, Algen, Laub, Brennnesseln, Krebstieren etc. gefüttert. Je nach Wasser- und Futterqualität sollte spätestens nach zwei Wochen ein Wasserwechsel erfolgen. Man gibt den Kaulquappen immer so viel, wie sie bis zur nächsten Fütterung fressen können.

 

Abb. 5

Abbildung 5 Kaulquappen in verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien

 

Die Larven der meisten Arten sollten einzeln aufgezogen werden, da sie kannibalisch veranlagt sind. Bei Phyllobates– und Epipedobates-Arten kann man die Quappen aber auch in Gruppen aufziehen. Zieht man die Kaulquappen in größeren Behältern, wachsen sie oft besser und werden größer. Trotzdem verwendet man in der Regel einen Becher mit einem Volumen von 250 ml bis 500 ml pro Kaulquappe, und nicht für jede einen Behälter mit 1500 ml Volumen, da hierfür der Platzbedarf zu groß wäre. Man kann zudem davon ausgehen, dass man bei einem gut harmonierenden Pärchen bis zu 100 Eier pro Legesaison hat. Natürlich sind auch Frösche, die in den kleineren Behältern großgezogen werden, gesund und fit.  Nach rund sechs Wochen beginnen sich die Hinterbeine zu entwickeln. Diese wachsen ab jetzt merkbar. Nach rund 55 Tagen sind die Vorderbeine schon in den Hauttaschen zu erkennen und auch die ersten gelben Flecken sind auf der Haut zu entdecken. Von nun an wird die Färbung immer deutlicher und nach 8 bis 10 Wochen brechen die Vorderbeine durch. Nun sollten die Kaulquappen in einen Behälter mit einem leicht ansteigenden Ufer gegeben werden, sodass die Kaulquappen bei vollständiger Resorption des Schwanzes problemlos an Land gehen können. Während der Resorption müssen die Kaulquappen auch nicht mehr gefüttert werden.

 

DAS LEBEN AN LAND

Wenn die kleinen Frösche an Land gegangen sind, bezeichnet man sie als „Landgänger“ (Abb. 6). Diese sollten jetzt täglich mit Springschwänzen und kleinen Fruchtfliegen gefüttert werden. Im Terrarium ist eine ausreichende Futterdichte sehr wichtig, da die Frösche jetzt sehr viel zum Fressen benötigen. Nach ca. drei Monaten sind die kleinen Frösche rund zwei bis drei Zentimeter groß und können nun an interessierte Hobby-Halter weiterverkauft werden.

 

Abb. 6

Abbildung 6 Lohn für die harte Arbeit: gesunde Nachzuchten

 

ANSCHAFFUNG

Wenn man sich tatsächlich dazu entscheidet, Pfeilgiftfrösche zu Hause zu halten, muss man sich vorher intensiv in die Thematik einlesen. Die Möglichkeiten dazu bieten diverse Online-Foren (z.B.: www.froschportal.at), verschiedene Webseiten und zahlreiche Bücher (z.B.: Henkel & Schmidt: Praxisratgeber Pfeilgiftfrösche). Foren und Webseiten basieren meistens auf Erfahrungsberichten. Dadurch können immer wieder andere Meinungen auftauchen. Man kann sich außerdem die Anlagen von Pfeilgiftfrosch-Haltern anschauen, wodurch man ebenfalls sehr viel lernen kann.

Wenn man jetzt noch immer fest davon überzeugt ist, sich diese Tiere, die durchaus bis zu 15 Jahre alt werden können, zu kaufen, holt man sie am besten direkt bei einem seriösen Froschzüchter ab. Zu Beginn kauft man sich meistens ein paar Jungtiere, deren Geschlecht nicht bestimmt werden kann, um später ein Paar auszuwählen. Männchen erkennt man daran, dass sie ausgewachsen immer kleiner als die Weibchen bleiben und nach der Geschlechtsreife zu rufen beginnen. Außerdem haben Männchen der Dendrobates-Arten herzförmige Zehen. Alles in allem lässt sich sagen, dass die Zucht von Pfeilgiftfröschen durchaus einiges an Arbeit mit sich bringt. Wenn man aber tatsächlich so vielfältige Naturphänomene im eigenen Wohnzimmer beobachten kann, ist das wirklich fantastisch.

 

 

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